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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Augustine of Hippo (Blessed) (354-430)

The largest medieval philosopher, a prominent representative of the Western "church fathers." Had a great influence on the whole life of the Middle Ages of Western Europe, the founder of the Christian philosophy of history ("City of God"). Developed the doctrine of predestination. Author works "Against academics", "On the blessed life", "On the immortality of the soul," "On Teacher", "Free Will" autobiography "Confessions", etc.

Augustine was born in 354 in a small African town Tagaste (now Souk Aras in Algeria) in a poor family. His father, a member of the city council. Patrician, was typical of the middle layer of the African population of the province. He lived, as they said, "in the flesh" and not "in spirit." Just before his death, he was baptized, apparently at the insistence of his deeply religious wife Monica.

Augustine inherited from his father a love of bright, full life, to carnal pleasures and worldly pleasures. Any significant impact on the spiritual formation of her son's father did not have. Augustine is almost no mention of it in the "Confessions" - stories of their spiritual formation. On the contrary, his mother, he devotes a lot of great, sincere and filled with a deep sense of pages. As a Christian, she exerted a lot of effort to attach to the "true church" husband and son. Water were united father and mother of the young Aurelius - is an effort to give his son a good education.

Initial training he underwent in Tagaste and located not far from him Madavre. Then, at the insistence of his father, the family although it was clearly beyond their means, and with the full consent of his mother, he was sent to school ritorskuyu Carthage, where he spent three years. Parents understand that education will help his son to make a career, and limited themselves around to help him finish the course. Even in the age of sixteen, fifteen in Augustine actively talking desires of the flesh, that pleased his father and mother is very worried.

At Carthage Augustine plunged into the elements of the delights of love "love and be loved - he wrote - was sweeter to me, if I could master the beloved. I stirred up mud lust source of friendship, I nebula its luster infernal breath desires. Ugly and dishonest in his boundless vanity, I eagerly wanted to be refined and secular. I rushed in love, I craved her surrender. I was like, I secretly sneak into prison pleasure, fun to put the shackles of sorrow that flogged me with red-hot iron rods of jealousy, suspicion, fear, anger and quarrels. "

In the first year of his stay in Carthage, he became friends with a woman who remained faithful for fifteen years. In 373, she bore him a son Adeodata, who died in 390-m.

Since childhood Aurelius loved games, spectacles, theater performances, school classes, he preferred poetry to other sciences. In Carthage his passion for theater and spectacle has intensified because rich food found here. Course of studies in the school was given ritorskoy Aurelius easily, and he was not deprived of ambitious dreams. "Pulled me in and the knowledge that considered respectable. I dreamed about the forum with his litigation where I shine, and I was showered with praise the more than skillful I lied. I was the first in ritorskoy school was full of joy and proud inflated arrogance. "

In accordance with the school curriculum in 373 Augustine studied dialogue Cicero "Hortensius" which struck him not only the beauty of the language, but above all the depth of content, an impassioned plea to love wisdom, the life of the spirit. "Love of wisdom in Greek is called philosophy, this love sparked in me this work." For wisdom, he appealed to Scripture. First acquaintance with the Bible only strengthened child Aurelius hostility to Christianity. Biblical stories seemed to him absurd and incomprehensible, and their language - rude and primitive - he could not go to any comparison with eloquence Tullius.

Augustine is forced to seek spirituality beyond her Carthaginian "university." For many years he finds her in the teachings of the Manicheans - religious current, practice contrast between good and evil, light and darkness. Nine years, was a fervent supporter of Augustine of Manichaeism, was friends with his prominent representatives, drew in a number of his friends Manichaeism. Later he will evaluate his spiritual immaturity of the time: "I do not know what is truth, and if I pushed considered foolish wit poddakivane deceivers." Augustine studied many volumes maniheiskih works, "read and understood all the books belong to the so-called" liberal arts, which he could read. "

All sciences were given to him easily. Augustine is proud to be himself without help teachers cope with these sciences and the "complexity of the books." In the twentieth year of his life he taught himself in his environment were considered difficult to "Categories" of Aristotle and tried to apply them to the knowledge of God.

With 375 years began teaching Augustine. For eight years, he, in his own words, "sold for money art victorious gab", ie rhetoric at Carthage and grammar in Tagaste, in practice mastering the psychology of pedagogy, which he later based his theory of Christian eloquence.

It is the beginning of the Carthaginian period of literary activity Augustine. His first work devoted to aesthetic issues - it's written in 380-381 years in the ancient traditions of the treatise "On the beautiful and appropriate", which, unfortunately, it was soon lost. Aggravation love of beauty Augustine throughout his life, though especially in his work never returned to this issue.

By the end of the Carthaginian period Augustine begins to feel more and more dissatisfaction with Manichaeism.

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