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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Marcus Aurelius (121-180)

Impoverished people of the senatorial class and the emperor gave Tribunsky aediles post. Preserving the dignity of the senatorial class, he declared invalid marriages with women of this class freedmen. Depletion of Roman citizenship was due to fund the establishment of nutritional education for orphans of Roman citizens. Funds received from landowners who laid their landholdings State with the duty to pay a certain percentage of the state.

Marcus Aurelius continued the long-established tradition of the Roman people to entertain and produce spectacles gratuitous distribution. There are, however, reports that he showed indifference to the spectacle. Much attention is paid Mark proceedings. Constantly in their environment experienced lawyers, he used their advice. The general direction of its activities in the field of law characterized by the fact that he was "not so much innovated many restored historic right." Mark wary of scammers, was imposed for false denunciation "stain of dishonor."

Caring for the replenishment of the state treasury, necessary to cover military spending, Mark, avoiding taxes on extraordinary province arranged auction forum of Trajan, which belonged to Emperor sold gold, crystal and murrinovye cups and vessels, female clothes, jewels found in the secret treasury Adrian, as well as statues and paintings of famous masters of the proceeds from the auction have enough money to cover all military spending.

In public funds Emperor showed thrift. During his time in Athens he founded the Department of Philosophy there four - for each dominant in its time philosophical trends - Academic, Peripatetic, Stoic Epicurean. Professors were appointed public custody.

In the reign of Marcus Aurelius, the Roman Empire collapsed, not to mention the wars, big trouble. At the beginning of his reign, there was a big flood came from the banks of the Tiber and caused a lot of destruction in Rome, killing a significant number of cattle, famine among the population. Emperors (Mark and Ver) helped the victims. In the last years of the reign of Mark (177 year) earthquake destroyed the city of Smyrna, and he generously released the money for its restoration. On this occasion, antique source says that Mark gave money to many cities - being thrifty at all, it does not skimp when it came to the costs involved.

Marcus Aurelius was not a warlike sovereign. Moreover, he is a very low score for military glory. At the beginning of the reign of Mark hostilities occurred in Britain and in Germany, where the Hutts invaded Greece. Later, the Spanish Moors ravaged province. There were riots in the Lusitania. Apparently, in all these locales Roman generals were successful and led to the defeat, or, at least, to repel enemies.

The most serious events that required special attention of the Roman government, took place on the eastern and northern borders of the empire. In the East, a longtime rival of Rome, the Parthian state, immediately after the death of Antoninus Pius began to show activity. Parthians invaded Roman lands in the two battles, defeated the Romans. The Roman Empire made peace with Parthia in 166 year on a fairly favorable conditions, in particular - for the city of Rome remained northwestern Mesopotamia - Edessa, Carrhae, Nisibis.

The victory of the Romans was largely negated by the fact that in the year 165 in the Roman army, who were in the East, started the plague. The epidemic has spread to Asia Minor, Egypt, and then to Italy and the Rhine. In 167 a plague struck Rome.

In the same year the powerful Germanic tribes Marcomanni and quads, as well as the Sarmatians invaded Roman lands on the Danube. Co-emperors marched against the barbarians. In the year 169 Lucius Verus died. Was not finished the war with the Germans and Sarmatians as unrest began in Northern Egypt (so-called revolt of the shepherds in the year 172).

After the uprising in Egypt and after the war with the Germans and Sarmatians in 175 governor of Syria Avida Cassius, an outstanding leader, proclaimed himself emperor, Marcus Aurelius and over in danger of losing power.

Ancient historians so write about the event: "Avida Cassius in the East proclaimed himself emperor, was killed soldiers against the wishes of Marcus Aurelius and without his knowledge. Learning about the uprising, Marcus Aurelius is not very angry and did not apply any harsh measures to children and families Avidhya Cassius. Senate declared him an enemy and confiscated his property. Marcus Aurelius did not wish that it received the imperial treasury, and so at the direction of the Senate, it passed into the state treasury. Marcus Aurelius did not order, but only allowed to kill Avida Cassia, so that for all it was clear that he would have spared him, if it depended on him. " "When Avida Cassius invaded Syria in the imperial dignity. Marcus Aurelius was delivered a bundle of letters addressed to the conspirators Cassius, as captured was the one who was supposed to deliver them. Marcus Aurelius, unopened, immediately ordered to burn the letters, not to learn the names of their enemies and not hate them involuntarily. "

"When one reproached the Roman Marcus Aurelius in condescension towards mutinied Avida Cassius and asked," And what if he won? "- Marcus Aurelius said," Not so bad we worshiped gods not so bad we live so that he could win. " Then enumerating all the emperors, who were killed, he said that there were reasons why they deserved to be killed, and that no good emperor was not just defeated and killed the tyrant. "

In the year 177 Rome fought with mavretantsami and won. In 178, at the Roman possessions again moved Marcomanni and other tribes. Marcus Aurelius and his son Commodus led a campaign against the Germans, and he has achieved a lot, but again the plague began in the Roman army. March 17, 180 years Marcus Aurelius died of plague in the Danube Vindobona (modern Vienna).

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