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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Marcus Aurelius (121-180)

Roman emperor (161-180) from the Antonine dynasty, philosopher, one of the most important representatives of the Roman Stoic, Epictetus follower. Wrote 12 volumes under the title "The arguments about himself."

Marcus Annius rolled north, went down in history under the name of Marcus Aurelius, who was born in Rome on April 26 121 years and was the son of Annia Faith and Domitia Lucilla. Marcus Aurelius took his mother with deep reverence, and believed that he owed her "piety, generosity and abstinence not only from evil deeds, but also from bad thoughts, as well as a simple way of life, far from all the luxuries." In 139, after the death of his father he was adopted by emperor Antoninus Pius and was named the Rev. Mark Ely Aurelius Caesar, later Emperor wore the official name of Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus August (or Marc Antonin August). Marcus Aurelius, received an excellent education. According to the will of maternal grandfather, he was educated at home. Mark mentions Diognetus, who introduced him to philosophy and taught painting at the same time. This teacher, in the words of Mark, the disciple freed from superstition and forced him to write dialogues. On the advice of the same teacher under the influence of the future emperor learned philosophical beliefs they started sleeping on bare boards, covering animal skins.

Emperor Hadrian, was very fond of a young man called him - alluding to his name Ver ("true") and its truth - Verissimo ("True"). At the age of fifteen, Mark got male toga. During the life of Adrian Mark, despite his young age, was scheduled to quaestors, and six months after the death of Adrian joined quaestorship (December 5, 138 years), that is, began to carry out the administrative work virtually.

In the same year he was engaged to Faustina, the daughter of the emperor Antoninus Pius, Hadrian's successor on the throne. Police Headquarters opened access to the Senate and the possibility of obtaining all the top positions and various honors. Even as he was scheduled questeur Pius consul for the next 140 years and declared Caesar.

140, Mark became consul for the first time. At the behest of Pius and against his wishes he was still in 139 he moved to the Palatine Hill to live in close proximity to the emperor.

Despite the high position and participation in the affairs of the Board, Mark did not interrupt his scientific studies. He received his higher education in the form in which it was obtained while in high Roman society. The main subject was rhetoric.

V145, Mark became the second consul, together with Pius. Immediately after this secondary consulate was decorated with Mark marriage Faustina. Reputation of this woman was not as beautiful as it looks, rumor persistently claimed that she chose a lover of sailors and gladiators. "When Marcus Aurelius spoke about her behavior, advising divorce her if he does not want to execute her, he said, he said:" If I divorce my wife, you will need to return the dowry and her. " And what else could be regarded as a dowry, but the imperial power? ".

In 25 years, Mark switched to philosophy. Respect for philosophy and philosophers fueled predecessors Mark (Adrian, Pius), but none of them had such a craving for philosophical teachings, like Mark to the Stoic doctrine. Chief mentor Mark's philosophy was Quintus Junius Rusticus, who put his hands on the works of Epictetus. There is information about other philosophers caused for Mark to Rome. Brand leader in the study of civil law was the famous Counsel Voluzy Metsian.

About the life of Mark in 141-161 years, little is known. Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius accustomed to government in 146, giving him power tribune of the people. In addition to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius adopted Lucius Verus. January 1 161, Mark took his third consulate with adoptive brother. In March of the same year died emperor Antoninus Pius and began joint reign of Marcus Aurelius Lucius Verom, which lasted until January of the year 169.

During their joint rule is always the last word belonged to Marcus Aurelius. Lucius Verus differed excessive laxity of morals and a penchant for riotous living. No need to list in chronological order obtained by Marcus Aurelius, is the supreme authority, those honors, which usually falls on the share of the Roman emperors. Suffice to say that Mark is no longer assumed the consulate, but received several Tribunsky powers and several times after victories received the honorary title of emperor. After the end of the Parthian war, he celebrated a triumph together with Lucius Verom, another triumph took place in the year 177 on the occasion of victories over the northern tribes.

Marcus Aurelius learned a lot from his adoptive father Antoninus Pius. Consent of the senate, and respect for the senatorial estate was one of the rules that consistently kept Antoninus Pius. Among the laudable qualities of his adoptive father, Mark called lack hobbies novelty. Rather, he was referring to innovate not only in everyday life, in demeanor, in speeches, but also something more - Antoninus Pius showed no desire to be original in public events, he acted within the traditional framework of the Roman imperial administration. Like Antoninus Pius, Mark strongly emphasized his respect for the Senate as an institution and to the Senators as members of the institution (allegedly attributed to Julius Capitolina biography of Marcus Aurelius).

Frequent absences from Rome did not always allow him to attend the meetings of the Senate, but visiting them, he never left earlier than the presiding consul closed meeting sacramental phrase: "We no longer detain you, fathers senators." Before you take money from the treasury, he applied for permission to the Senate, he has repeatedly said he will not allow that in his reign was executed senator. Were expanded judicial functions of the Senate.

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