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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Chuang Tzu (Chuang Chou) (Oak 369-286 BC BC)

Zhuangzi denied not only the difference between true and false, but the contradiction between life and death, benefits and harms, noble and low origin, etc.

Member understanding Zhuangzi relates to the field of view of nature, and it is the source of origin of the world Dao "has its own base and its own root, it existed when there was no earth, no sky, firmly preserved from ancient times, it spiritualized High spirits and lord of the sky, it created the heaven and the earth ", it is" not a thing ", it is" nothingness. " In general, tao - mystical spiritual body, which "has feelings and trusted, idle and shapeless."

In epistemology Tao acts as having no differences, the absolute "one." In the paragraph "Leveling things," says the "Tao from the outset had no borders", if it existed for the border, "appeared to the left and right hand, would have had arguments and solutions, distinction and differences erupted to rivalry and struggle "Tao never knew these differences, boundaries and struggles. And further: "When manifested clearly true and false, it harmed the dao. When Tao was harmed any addiction. " In other words, the true face of the Tao is characterized by the absence of true and false, and the occurrence of the damage, while the emergence of differences, boundaries and confrontation caused damage dao. Hence it is evident that the dao "Zhuangzi" - is an independent, absolute 'identity', expressed in his concept of "one." Chuang Tzu said: "From the standpoint of the Tao things are not valuable or worthless." Of the words "are not valuable and worthless" it is clear that all the differences and conflict in the world Zhuangzi considered as a consequence of the fact that "this and that can not find a pair of" that "Tao unites all in a single unit."

When a large ship sailing on the big river, it seems that it is "free", but it depends on the movement of water, and if the "water column is not large enough, she can not afford to carry a large ship," so the ship can not be considered free. Similarly, when a huge phoenix soars skyward, he "builds on and takes off on a whirlwind 90,000 Do." It would seem that we can say that the phoenix is ​​free, but he can fly, relying only on the big wind. If the "strata of wind flow is insufficient, he can not afford to carry large wings", so you can not say that the phoenix is ​​absolutely free. To wander in infinite space, should be guided by the Tao (the basic principles of heaven and earth), based on the change of the six elements of nature, that is, light and dark began, wind, rain, darkness and light, and only then we can say that achieved genuine, absolute freedom. If you need more "wait for something" can not be absolute but free. In the paragraph "great teacher" says: "I relax my body, cast out sensitive hearing and keen eyesight, drifting away from the form, move away from the knowledge and merges with the all-pervading (dao)" - this is the "sit forgot myself. " This is also in the section "Leveling things" says: "I lost myself" - that is, my body is made like dry wood, and his heart was made like the cold ashes.

In short, a "sit and forget about yourself" means the complete renunciation when the "do not feel human emotions." In this case, can not be worldly representation of the true and false, good and evil disappear desire, there can be no sensations and thoughts. Turn into nothing and disappear all existing in the real world contradictions and differences associated with true and false, high and low status, poverty and wealth, life and death, longevity and premature death, large and small, beautiful and ugly, and so etc., will be achieved a state in which all things and I will be together. " Thus, it will be possible to move from the real world in which you have to "wait for something" in "a country where there is nothing," and where "no expectations", and there find the absolute spiritual freedom. When Zhuangzi lay dying, his disciples conceived to give him a lavish funeral. " What is it? - Said Chuang Tzu - my coffin will land sarcophagus - the sky, jade plaques - sun and moon pearls - the stars, and all living things - the funeral procession, is not all ready for my funeral? "" We are afraid, - answered the disciples - that you are not torn to pieces crows and vultures. " "On the ground, - said Chuang Tzu - rasklyuyut crows and vultures, underground - will eat ants and mole crickets. So whether or not to take away from some - that would give back to others? ".

In the paragraph "Autumn Water" says "Life is rushing things rapidly as swift running horse or horse gallop, no (there is not a single) movement, which does not (cause to) change, no (single) point, which is not ( would bring) change, "and in the section" Wanderings of knowledge in the north, "says:" A man's life between heaven and earth like a (rapid) white horse jump over a crevice, a moment - and she flew. "

Once Zhuangzi dreamed he was a little butterfly, flitting among the flowers fun. Waking up, the philosopher could not decide Zhuangzi whether he has seen in a dream that he was a butterfly, or a butterfly dreaming that she was Zhuangzi?

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