General Psychology Psychiatry Psychologists Thinkers Crib

Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Chuang Tzu (Chuang Chou) (Oak 369-286 BC BC)

He is hilarious, even when his wife and buries himself dies. His ironic and yet genuinely friendly smile never will transform the face into a mask of ancient Taoist indifferent and callous "Eastern sage."

We do not know anything about the environment in which Zhuangzi grew up and lived, or his teachers and pupils. All this did not know already Sima Qian, who lived two centuries after Zhuangzi. From the works of the Chuang-tzu easy to define cultural parallels his philosophy. For example, Chuang Tzu loves contact musical metaphor, but (unlike Confucius and other ancient authors) says nothing about what kind of music he likes. His speeches are a mix of such genres and styles that you can only wonder what literary tradition could accommodate such a multifaceted writer. Chuang Tzu has repeatedly speaks about his ideal country, but we can only guess what kind of society he has in mind. More often, he talks about his ideal of "real man", but still vague. What can be said, for example, about such a portrait?

"These ancient people did not know what to enjoy life and to turn away from death, not proud of the birth and did not oppose withdrawal from the world. Aloof they came, detachment went without prior doiskivayas not rushing thought the end, glad that granted them, and selflessly returning to their nature. Mind of people immersed in oblivion look emotionless man majestically. Cool as autumn, and warm, like spring, they followed their feelings flow seasons. They were in harmony with the boundless world, and no one knows where to stop it. "

No, not so simple Chuang Tzu, as it sometimes seems. Clues Taoist sage to be found in the text of the book that bears his name. This book has come a long way of becoming. In the catalog of the Imperial Book Depository, compiled at the turn of our era, mentions the treatise "Zhuangzi", consisting of 52 chapters. After three and a half centuries had circulation lists, numbering 26 or 27 chapters. The final kind of treatise on the turn III-IV centuries gave his classic commentator Guo Xiang, who singled him 33 chapters, breaking them down into three categories: "internal", "external" and "mixed." Guo Xiang implemented edition text has been universally recognized. However, the most reliable of the entire extant versions of the book can be considered its publications, appeared in XI-XII centuries.

Chuang Tzu "did not hold any particular view of things." There is reason to believe that the creed of the Taoist philosopher was not reduced to a common denominator, to a certain "system of ideas." For example, Zhang Tszundun in his study of the philosophy of Zhuangzi pretty convincingly shown that in the book of the Taoist philosopher present completely different and even conflicting ideological positions it can detect and metaphysics and the denial of metaphysics, monism and pluralism, the statement of the objective world of reality and its reduction to subject etc. In the book of Zhuangzi should seek some sverhsistemu, enveloping even unsystematic.

Zhuangzi willingly drawn to images drawn from the shamanistic heritage, esoteric practice of ascetics and hermits and sings the praises of the mysterious "divine people" possessing supernatural powers. But he does not claim the title of Master of the occult sciences and seeking refuge in the deserted mountains. An interesting attempt to explain the attitude of Chuang-tzu to the ideological currents of his time is contained in the 15th chapter of his book, which identified five categories of scholars: "Men and gorges", departed from the world of contempt for him, "the men are ordered world", all kinds of reformers and moralists, "court men" holding the reins, "men of rivers and seas", conductive days in idleness away from people, "Men of ascetic exercises," seeks the eternal life. "But the truth of the world - said in conclusion - to be sublime without prideful thoughts, educate yourself, not thinking about humanity and justice, rule without merit and glory remain in idleness, not hiding in rivers and seas, live long without ascetic exercises, forget about everything and have everything be artless and does not know limits. "ideal life Chuang Tzu - complete the" irrelevance "and elusiveness to the snares of worldly life. Zhuangzi does not believe in the chimera of intelligence nor revolt against reason. He looks for hidden springs that feed the life of the spirit, and said that we must not live for others and not for posing, but for something in us that is infinitely superior to us. He teaches us not to "lifestyle", and release from any whatsoever lifestyle. It requires absolute inconspicuous life, which is equivalent to its ubiquity.

Chuang Tzu believed that there are no objective criteria for establishing the truth or falsity to make judgments, and therefore it is impossible to determine which of the two statements is true or false. True and false completely relative. He said, if I argue with you and I can not argue, if it proves that your opinion is really "true", but really my "false"? Conversely, if you can not argue with me, is it necessarily prove that my opinion is "true" and your "false"? It is possible that either one of us is right, or we're both right or both wrong.

"If both of us, me and you can not know who is right and who can fix it? Suppose we will invite persons holding the same opinion as you determine who is right, but as converging with you in opinion, they can solve this issue? If you call people who share my opinion, then, sharing my opinion, as they can make a decision? If you call people who do not share any of my or your opinion, then, without sharing our opinions, as they decide? If you call people who share our views, then sharing our opinions as they can make a decision? So neither I, nor you, nor any other person can not know (who is right and who is wrong), who do we have to wait? "" From my point of view, the principles of humanity and duty, the way of true and false and confusing chaotic, how can I know the difference between them? ".

© 2008-2021 Psychology online.: en, es, de, fr, cz