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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Chuang Tzu (Chuang Chou) (Oak 369-286 BC BC)

Chinese philosopher, Lao Tzu follower, whose teachings expounded in poetic form. According to Chuang Tzu, Tao can only be achieved through direct experience rather than theoretical and speculative reasoning. Ideal - the "true man", that is those who, following the Tao, energetic and independent. Treatise "Zhuangzi" is written in the form of parables, stories and dialogues and directed against the teachings of Confucius and Mozi.

Name Chuang Tzu is one of the greatest philosophical treatises of ancient China, which lies at the origins of the Taoist tradition. There is no reason to doubt that the Zhuangzi (his real name was Chuang Chou) - a real historical person. But information about this man is extremely scarce and contained in the sources, not too credible evidence as memoirs. Brief and only in ancient Chinese literature biography of Chuang Tzu put in his "Historical notes" famous historian Sima Qian in ancient China. According to him, Chuang Tzu lived in the second half of the IV century BC. Oe. and died at the beginning of the next century.

While, traditionally referred to as the era of "Warring States" ("Zhan-go"), on the territory of ancient China, there were several independent states. Chuang Tzu was a native of Maine county owned Sun, located in the southern plains of the Yellow River, almost in the center of the then Chinese oecumene.

If you believe Sima Qian, Chuang Tzu in his youth was a plantation overseer lacquer trees, and then, not wanting to bind ourselves to a state service, he resigned and began to lead a life of "free philosopher." Chuang Tzu and his followers emphasized the hardships and dangers of service career, which fade before all awards and honors. They knew, of course, that the rise of ambitious scientists too often ended with their death or maiming as punishment. But most importantly, lust for power, political activity and poison the soul destroying. Literary talent and inexhaustible imagination Zhuangzi embodied in the satirical images, exposing the evils of government and pundits vanity, intrigue, ignorance, pettiness, callousness, greed, hypocrisy.

That there is one comparison eminent dignitary with lice in pig bristles that lives happily ever after until the bristles not consume fire! A war between the kingdoms to truly become like Swift's sarcasm battles between states Lilliput is located on one snail horns. "On the left horn snail is kind Munching kingdom. On the right bottle - kind kingdom Manh. Once they took to fight each other for land. People put tens of thousands, hunted for run away for ten days and another five, and only after went home.

"Get caught up in the quagmire of human vanity, even if the fuss is covered lofty words, in itself worthy of contempt. But the sentence Zhuangzi more strict one who lives like an inveterate moralists, with the thought of his "good name", who devote themselves to the service of abstract ideas, losing sense of reality, he turns into a buried alive. Powerful courtiers philosopher compares it with a dead turtle, stored as a relic in a golden casket, then smartly decorated sacrificial bull, then a bird that tasty food, but keep in captivity.

Life independence - the greatest treasure a man believed Taoist thinker. Once Chuang Tzu was fishing in the river Pu. Chusky ruler sent unto him two dignitaries with a message stating: "I want you to lay the burden of public affairs." Chuang Tzu, not postponing fishing rods and even turning his head, said: "I have heard that there is a sacred tortoise Chu, who died three thousand years ago. Chu rulers store it, wrapped in veils and hidden in a casket in the ancestral temple. Would prefer that this turtle to be dead, but to read the rest after the bone, or to be alive and dragging tail in the mud? ". Both dignitary answered "rather be alive and dragging tail in the mud." Then Chuang Tzu said, "Go away! I also prefer the tail dragging in the mud. "

Chuang Tzu, was probably a native of impoverished aristocrats, which in itself made his position quite ambiguous. Moreover, he lived in a small kingdom surrounded by powerful neighbors, and to the extent open to invasions from the outside, that it earned the nickname of his contemporaries - "the place where converge in battle four quarters." Add to this that Zhuangzi could witness the agony of his native kingdom, when the brutality reached nobility there rare even for that troubled epoch sizes. And another important fact: the kingdom was founded Sun descendants conquered Chou Yin nobility, and its residents retain some traditions Yin culture.

Now it is very difficult to determine what exactly is the peculiarity of customs and mores SESC, but it was enough to make them objects of ridicule of their neighbors and heroes set walking jokes. Even among scholars of his time stood Zhuangzi "breadth of knowledge." That's all that we know about Zhuangzi with the words of the historian Sima Qian. It may be added that the ancient chronicles do mention the existence of the kingdom of Song Zhuang noble family, who at the turn of VII-VI centuries BC. Oe. was destroyed after its leaders participated in an unsuccessful attempt a palace coup, and since forever gone from the political scene. According to the custom of the era philosopher had considered the offspring of the fallen race.

All other news of Taoist philosophy (including powered by Sima Qian) already belong to his literary image of what it consists of the text of the treatise attributed to him, Chuang Tzu always appears simple, humble man devoid of vanity. He lives in poverty and even "weaves sandals", but does not feel cramped. He talks to students-friends, and even with a skull lying in a ditch, fishes, laughs, talks about his dreams, admires fish frolicking in the water - in short, lives unsophisticated and does not pretend to master.

Not a shadow of arrogance, conceit scientist, cold showers Zhuangzi who enjoys her life and claims that he is pleased with the world.

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