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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Plato (428 or 427-348 or 347 BC BC)


Wandering and observing life and the laws of different nations, he concluded that all existing state managed poorly. Increasingly Plato argued in thought that ridding the human race from evil can only true and right-minded philosophers who took public office, or the rulers of that by some divine definition become genuine philosophers. Plato can be considered one of the first Greek philosophers, who in a systematic form presented his understanding of the state. Social and political issues Plato devoted two of its largest product - "The State" and "Laws". These issues are also addressed in the dialogue "Politician" and "Crito."

But what kind of policy which he intends to do? True policy, as stated in the "Gorgias," is to make a just and perfect citizens through education. Ideal state, according to Plato, should be caste. And in addition to upper-class control in terms of the Greater Good, it allocates class manufacturers, for which it is permissible selfishness and the pursuit of so-called good. We are talking about material things food, clothing, housing, etc. In contrast, the common good one at all. For example, social harmony, which cares for the state, one for all. So about it, according to Plato, people have to take care, with private property are not related. And the rulers of the total must be not only property but also their wives and children. After all, if everyone will have a wife, then he will try for it at the expense of the state.

Lower social class manufacturers make - it farmers, artisans, merchants, followed by warriors guardians and rulers philosophers. Lower social class, according to Plato, and has a low moral character. Rulers inherent rational part of the soul, soldiers - will and noble passion, producers - sensuality and desire. The ideal state system, according to Plato, has the characteristics of a moral and political organization and aims to address important public tasks.

Among them he includes the following tasks: protection from enemies of the state, the implementation of a systematic supply of citizens, the development of spiritual culture. Perform these tasks, according to Plato, then implement the idea as a good idea, ruling the world. Ideal, and thus good state has four virtues: wisdom inherent rulers and philosophers, courage - soldiers, guards, moderation - employees productive labor fourth virtue characteristic of the entire state and is expressed in the fact that "every man did his."

Plato's state - this theoretical scheme utopian state in which society is subject to strict government control. On the basis of the conception of the ideal state, many researchers have considered the theory of Plato as the first draft of a communist society. Plato envisaged intense ideological dictatorship authorities. For "atheism" was death. Any art is subjected to strict censorship, which considered each product in terms of whether it was aimed at the development of moral perfection in the public interest.

Plato visited Syracuse, Dionysius the tyrant rules where I Elder, who seized power by force of arms in 406 BC. Oe. Important role at the court of the tyrant played Dion Gilparina son, his wife's brother Dionysius Aristomahi, he married the daughter of Dionysius. Dion was an intelligent, educated, entertained the hope political reforms in the aristocratic spirit. In the year of arrival of the philosopher he was only 18 years old, but he already was aware of himself as a pupil of Plato. That he had the idea to invite the great thinker for moral perfection tyrant through philosophy.

Italic and Syracuse feasting not liking Plato. A habit cram twice a day to dump him was just disgusting. Philosopher saw that people with youth brought up in such vile manners, can never be reasonable, even if they are endowed with wonderful natural inclinations. Plight of state whose citizens are mired in luxury, gluttony, drunkenness, and the pleasures of love did not make useless any effort was evident in Plato.

Experienced and seasoned Dionysius, who often believe no one in every suspected enemy, listened in disbelief about the virtues of reasoning philosopher ruler and man. One of the remarkable conversations with Plato Dionysius Dionysius asked questions and answered them Plato tone, there is no doubt in the credibility of the philosopher. On the question of who is the happy man, Plato called without hesitation Socrates. When Dionysius began to try to find what is the purpose of the ruler, Plato, undeterred, said "Making of his subjects good people." Dionysius considered himself to be extremely fair judge and asked the opinion of Plato about the importance of a fair trial. However Plato did not flatter his formidable interlocutor and quipped that the judges even just, like tailors, whose case sew the torn dress.

Dionysius wanted to know whether you need to brave the tyrant, thinking that Plato finally appreciate his personal qualities. But Plato said that the tyrant most timid man in the world, as it trembles before his barber, fearing that he had not stabbed him with a razor. Dionysius has made no secret displeasure, listening all instructions vaunted philosopher and suspecting him of his undisguised condemnation person. Angered Dionysius and the enthusiasm with which the court listened to Plato. The youth was just mesmerized, as he openly expressed such thoughts that no one has ever dared to say here aloud. Finally exhausted the patience of Dionysius, and he asked sharply Plato, why he came to Sicily. Plato's response that he is looking for the perfect man, Dionysius said sarcastically, "By the gods, you have not found it yet, it is quite clear."

Plato, who risked his life, just before watching the lava flows during an eruption of Mount Etna, now subjected to much greater danger. Knowing the cruelty and perfidy of Dionysius, Dion decided to immediately send home Plato.

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