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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Plato (428 or 427-348 or 347 BC BC)

Greek philosopher, founder of Platonism. Disciple of Socrates, Athens founded the philosophical school. Writings of Plato - highly dialogues, the most important of them: "Apology of Socrates", "Phaedo", "Feast", "Phaedrus" (doctrine of ideas), "State", "Tee tete" (theory of knowledge ), "Parmenides" and "sophist" (dialectic categories), "Timaeus" (natural philosophy).

Plato was born in 428 (427) BC. E., In the midst of internecine Peloponnesian War, and destructive of democratic Athens and Sparta aristocratic, competing in the hegemony over the Hellenistic States - policies.

Plato belonged to one of the noble Athenian birth. His paternal ancestors were descended from the last king of Athens Kodra. We know almost nothing about her father Plato named Ariston, but relatives Perictione mother Plato left a noticeable mark on the political and social life of Athens. Suffice it to mention Solon. However, neither Plato nor his siblings and Commander Adimant nor his half-brother Antiphon public affairs were not engaged.

They all loved books, poems, friends with philosophers. However, none of the brothers won the same poetic fame as their ancestor Solon, or famous playwright and witty poet, what was their uncle Critias, or speaking skills of their relative Andokides.

Became a great philosopher Plato, the Greeks called it "divine". Plato received a thorough education. He took lessons from the best teachers. Letter he was taught by famous Dionysius, music - Dragon student Damon who taught himself Pericles, and Metellus of Agrigento, gymnastics - wrestler Ariston of Argos. Believe that this outstanding wrestler gave his disciple Aristoclius, so named after his paternal grandfather, the name "Plato" whether his broad chest and powerfully built, whether for a wide forehead. So disappeared Aristokl son of Ariston, and went down in history Plato.

The young man was engaged in painting, wrote tragedies, elegant epigrams, lofty praises in honor of Dionysus, whose name is associated the origin of tragedy, and sang, though not distinguished strong voice. He especially loved comic writers Aristophanes and Sophron, and what prompted him to write comedy. These classes did not interfere with Plato, as they say, to participate as a fighter in the Isthmian games obschegrecheskih and even get there reward.

In his youth, he listened to the lessons of the great sophists that people are born unequal, that morality - neither more nor less than the invention of the weak to indulge stronger, and that of all forms of government is the most reasonable - aristocracy. V408 BC. Oe. Plato met in Athens, his hometown, Socrates, sage and philosopher. According to legend, before meeting with Plato, Socrates had a dream in her lap a young swan, who waved his wings, took off with a marvelous cry. Swan - a bird, dedicated to Apollo. Sleep Socrates is full of character. This premonition apprenticeship Plato and future of their friendship.

Socrates Plato gave what he lacked, a firm belief in the existence of truth and the higher values ​​of life that are learned by associating it with the good and the beauty of the inner self the hard way. This friendship was interrupted after eight years when installed tyranny in Athens, led by a cousin of Plato's Critias, which was followed by the death of Socrates.

Plato hated Athenian democracy, the regime that killed his teacher. He dedicated the creation of a new state for most of his life, until the very end: he died without completing his "Laws". Plato began to explain the evidence of his teacher, first in a series of short conversations called "Socratic" because they are the closest "historical" Socrates. Plato revives, rehabilitate it in the "Apology of Socrates", which he dares to put into the mouth of his teacher, speaking before the court. Finally, in the latter, the deepest and most beautiful of the dialogues, called Socratic - in "Gorgias" - Plato, Socrates shows in the perfect image of a righteous man, contrasting it finally unmasked sophists. However, this just man put democracy, pervert justice, in an environment in which he must die.

After Plato's death, moved to Megara to Euclid, who initially gathered the disciples of Socrates. They wanted to relive together a common grief, before move to various cities. This philosopher, according to ancient tradition, was supposed to gain wisdom from those who have kept it since ancient times. Hence, it was necessary to go traveling around the world. Some argue that Plato visited Babylon, where he studied astronomy, and Assyria, was introduced to the great wisdom of magicians. Some say he even got as far as Phoenicia and Judea, collecting information about the laws and religion of their peoples. Most agree that Plato could not escape Egypt, which struck at the time of Solon and Herodotus. It seems that this assumption is not unusual, especially since Egypt was very close and there were often Greeks, founding colonies in North Africa.

Plato, of course, knew Gerodotovu history. Travelled allegedly not one, but along with the young Evdoksom, his pupil, the future famous geographer and astronomer. There is evidence that Plato visited Cyrene, a city founded in North Africa in VII century BC. Oe. Greeks. Originally there was a famous mathematician and Aristippus Theodore. It is said that Plato visited there Theodore, he took lessons in mathematics as it once did, and Socrates. Theodore was close to the Pythagoreans, and Plato also gradually establish friendly relations with these philosophers, ascetics and connoisseurs meaning of numbers as symbols of human and cosmic being. The Pythagoreans taught Plato clarity of thought, rigor and harmony in creation theory, consistent and comprehensive review of the subject.

Plato lived in southern Italy, which later was called the Great Greece and which has long been inhabited by Greeks, as well as Sicily.

After the death of Socrates, Plato traveled for ten years, until 389-387 years BC.

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