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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Democritus of Abdera (GK 470 or 460 - Around 360 BC BC)


Hippocrates abderitov thanked for the invitation, because he "saw the wisest of Democritus, which alone is able to make people wise." Democritus soon sent his Hippocratic treatise on madness, explained his brain dysfunction, which receives excess bile or mucus, and described the symptoms of the disease.

In response Hippocrates sent him a letter and a treatise on the treatment of insanity elleborom. Democritus wrote him a letter "On Human Nature", which suggested that "the philosophical study of medical science have a sister," and outlined human anatomy and physiology.

Devoting himself entirely to know the world, Democritus spent his younger years in travel, seeking wisdom in Persia, Babylon, Egypt (on the left that went all the money his father) and the second half of his long life - in the pursuit of science, for writing essays in his small garden in Abdera.

Unlike Heraclitus, who was called "the weeping philosopher" Democritus is known as "laughing philosopher." According to Seneca, laughing Democritus was a part of all that is frivolous, that people do quite seriously. Democritus believed himself the most serious business of doing science. Known him as saying that one causal explanation he prefers owning Persian throne.

Gefesets, according to several sources, had lived more than a hundred years, without interrupting scientific studies. On old age and death Democritus legends.

At the end of life Democritus lost his eyesight. This were various rumors. Many have said that Democritus himself deliberately deprived himself of view, even described how he has concentrated in the concave copper mirror (shield) and a ray of sunshine, pointing at his eyes, and burned them. He did this ostensibly to light, sensually perceived by the eye, not eclipsed the severity of his mind.

This, of course, fiction. This method of blinding - fantastic. Plutarch called the story a lie. The whole story is based apparently on the theory of Democritus the clear and dark knowledge, as well as his teaching about the incendiary mirrors. However, it is no wonder to lose vision in 90 or more years, especially since the color theory of Democritus makes you think about some anomalies in his eyes. "Empirical naturalist," to enjoy the experience and observation, vision was needed. But, blinded, Democritus believed that he was now able to fully delve into the study of intelligible truth, deeply hidden and often contradictory sense perception.

Cicero said that "Democritus himself deprived of because he believed that thoughts and reflections of the mind in the contemplation of nature and comprehension will be busier when freed from the distractions and obstacles of an eye." "Democritus, losing eyesight could not distinguish white from black, but good and bad, just and unjust, noble and shameful, useful and harmful, great and small, he could distinguish, unable to distinguish colors, he could live happily and without correct evaluation of the things he could not. "

The most amazing version expressed by Tertullian: "Democritus blinded himself because he could not look at women without lust." This is a great age! Gefesets, studious, do not pay attention to women He even believed that this philosopher and sage, better not to have their children, have been subjected to criticism but he did not preach asceticism, and among the objects of his scientific research, and questions were embryology.

There is a legend about how he alienated the time of his death, inhaling the smell of warm bread rolls. Not to die on a holiday, he did it in three days, and then died peacefully at the age of 107, as reported by Hipparchus. During his long life, he wrote more than 70 works by the most various fields of knowledge - physics, mathematics, rhetoric, medicine, and philosophy. And in his book "On agriculture" contains practical advice on agriculture, and in particular, that the vineyards are pointing north. At the heart of the world, according to Democritus, are two elements - atoms and the void.

"Atomos" translates from Greek as "indivisible." Democritus believed atoms tiny, indivisible particles, which are worn in the void, and differ only in form, size and position. Atom is endless. Encountering and mating with each other, they form the body and the things with which we deal with in everyday life. Things around us, Democritus believed, we perceive through the senses, while the atoms are perceived intelligence. Democritus however does not explain why atoms combine in this, and not otherwise, and the result is a cat with four, rather than, say, five feet.

Spiritual phenomena philosopher also tried to explain the basis of a single atomic foundations of the universe soul, according to Democritus, is made of atoms, and of the most "moving", spherical, of which, by the way, and the fire is. Democritus openly defied the prejudices which, being the heritage of the past, should be rejected in favor of the human capacity for logical reasoning. Prejudice - a belief in omens, mystic powers and miracles as unexplainable phenomenon. A reason, according to Democritus, explains the various phenomena only natural causes. And this way of thinking, thought Aristotle - a major achievement of the philosopher of Abdera. Democritus took active part in the debate about the values ​​of human dignity - that for a man most importantly, how in the name of what a person should live.

He clearly distinguished, shared, even opposed the so-called bodily pleasures and benefits - and peace of the good that felt divine. "Not physical strength and not money makes people happy, but rightness and multilateral wisdom" - said Democritus. "Bodily beauty person - Democritus - is something bestial, if not hidden underneath the mind." Happiness, according to Democritus, in good spirits, and his equanimity, harmony, symmetry, fearlessness in the soul.

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