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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Democritus of Abdera (GK 470 or 460 - Around 360 BC BC)

He squandered all its wanderings state returned to the poor and now lives at the expense of his brother Decent Damasus. How could such a person go unpunished? Laws Abdera read: citizen, squandered his inheritance, can not be buried in his homeland. And, therefore, demanded the prosecutor, it is necessary to expel Democritus as a criminal infringer policy.

As always, the Greek court in his defense the accused acted. He said the money he needed to travel, but it was not empty wanderings. He went to study, to learn the wisdom of other nations, their life, manners, customs, get to know their science, to measure the power of their knowledge to the sages of other countries. "I have traveled more land - said Democritus - than any of the modern people I exhaustively examining it, I've seen more than any other, husbands and land and talked with a large number of learned men. And nobody denounced me errors when folding lines, accompanied by proof, even so-called garpedonapty the Egyptians. " And Democritus reminded his fellow citizens, he has studied hard at home, both in their own eyes Hellenic wisdom learned from a remarkable philosopher, miletyanina Leucippus. And then he read out in court most of his work, developed the doctrine of the structure of Leucippus and things about the universe - "Big mirostroy."

Abderityane then realized that they face a real sage. And they not only stripped him of the charge, but also praised his work in the amount of even much greater than all the spent inheritance. Yet it almost copper statues, and later for his work, for his useful advice the city gave him the honorary nickname Wisdom. It is not known at what time, but maybe when the homeland was in danger, he was made an archon, and for his services he received the nickname Patriot. Democritus was buried in his hometown and at public expense.

We do not know how reliable the legend. But it sounds like Democritus report and proud defense. Of respect for him as fellow citizens for active participation in the affairs of the city, its arhontstve shows one real proof: abderskaya silver coin with the emblem of the State and the inscription: "When Democritus."

Democritus respected physical labor. He considered it acceptable that a poor or a former slave could become a prominent philosopher, and actively promote this. Democritus once saw a young man who has worked hard and said, "You're making a very beautiful seasoning to old age." A Byzantine lexicographer Court (X century) has left us the following entry under the word "Diagoras": "Seeing that he has good ability, Democritus of Abdera bought him from the slavery of ten thousand drachmas and made his disciple ..."

We do not have accurate data on exactly when Democritus visited Athens. Probably, it was either the day before or at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War. According to some sources, he stayed in Athens for quite some time.

All stories about this trip Democritus show his humility and desire to learn from others, "using every minute to learn wisdom and to practice it." The famous Roman orator, politician and philosopher Cicero wrote: "Democritus said," I came to Athens and no one knew I was not here. " That's a solid and confident person who is proud to be a stranger to the desire for glory! "

Did Democritus "knew Socrates, but Socrates did not know him." But if Socrates and Democritus did not know personally, it is quite possible that he was familiar with his ideas or writings that were popular in Athens. It was at this time, about 420 years BC. E., Was written "Small mirostroy", one of the major works of Democritus, in which he talked about human society, in particular the emergence of the state. And in Plato's "State" when Socrates talks with Adimantom the emergence of the state, it actually transmits the teachings of Democritus need as the driving force of social development. Many similarities can be seen in the ethics of Democritus and Socrates.

Contemporaries believed Democritus very knowledgeable also in the teaching of Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans. In a word, it was hardly something significant in ancient philosophical thought, what would specifically was doing whatever he studied over whatever wondered Democritus and that somehow would not affect the appearance of his concept.

There is a legend that Democritus repeatedly prosecuted and fellow citizens is very suspicious of his lifestyle. Not very clear during the first process or later some influential residents Abdera insisted on inviting for examination philosopher Hippocrates, who behaved very strangely. The fact that Democritus, having his home and lived at the temple: Greek sages, philosophers, who had no relation to the religious activities, like Heraclitus, often settled at the temples. Seemed strange to another: Democritus was so engrossed in his studies that sometimes completely forgot about the people pondering some ideas suddenly broke into laughter. Whatever it was, Hippocrates, came to Abdera, had a long conversation with Democritus.

Hippocrates, after watching Democritus, immediately realized that before him not a madman, and the person in-depth scientific research. Conversation with him confirmed his guess. And yet, when Democritus and laughed at him, and over his concerns, he reproached him: "Or do you think that is not crazy laugh dead, over sickness, madness ... over and over any more worst case? Or, conversely, over marriages over the festivities ... the mysteries over the authorities of honors or above all the other good? For you there is no distinction between good and evil! "

Democritus said this: "Do you think that there are two reasons for my laughter: good and evil, but in fact the reason for my laughter is only one thing, that a man full of folly, not committing right Affairs, stupid in all his plans, suffering without any benefit from the immense labors, man, drawn by his insatiable desires ...

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