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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Democritus of Abdera (GK 470 or 460 - Around 360 BC BC)

Greek philosopher, founder of atomism. According to this doctrine, all that happens is the motion of the atoms, which differ in shape and size, location and location are in the empty space in perpetual motion, and because of their connection and disconnection things and worlds arise and come to ruin. The highest good can be achieved by curbing his desires and moderate lifestyle. Democritus called "laughing philosopher".

About life Democritus evidence no more than his predecessors. His birthplace Abdera on Thracian coast. This city had a reputation among the ancient capital of the kingdom of the Greeks foolishness. This gave rise to Cicero to crack a joke that Democritus said of the gods is more worthy of his country than his own. Abdera residents accused and that they can use for their own act unscrupulously in relation to other policies. When the Persian king Xerxes invaded Greece, with great shame departed, there was an episode: on the way back to Persia, conqueror stayed at Abdera, which was adopted by the friendly residents. And among those who are most cordially met Xerxes, was the father of Democritus Demosid. Xerxes some time after staying in Abdera, taking advantage of the hospitality of his father and Democritus. According to legend, leaving Abdera, Xerxes decided to thank especially hospitable hosts. In particular, the father's house Democritus Persian king left one of his magicians and Chaldeans, Eastern wisdom keepers. They were engaged in mathematics, astronomy, possessed many other knowledge. These magch and Chaldeans as if he were the first teachers of children Demosida including Democritus. However, then Democritus himself visited the Ancient East, he traveled halfway around the world to gain experience, knowledge and observation. But if true legend, the Democritus acquaintance with oriental wisdom and philosophy of the early childhood through the first teachers.

Diogenes Laertius linked with the "Persian upbringing" Democritus his "theory of idols." Some historians even argue that the very idea of ​​atomism was prompted or told Democritus Persian teachers. And there's reason, because this idea is probably still in the VII century BC BC. maturing in Phoenicia. But it is hardly out of the Persian wisdom Democritus could borrow a pure idea of ​​atoms. Although it is possible that the views of Oriental sages influenced him associative, pushing to the corresponding reflections.

With great attention and rare for a young man studied concentration Democritus Hellenic philosophy. If his natural scientific views were influenced by the Ionians, the first product in a list of his "moral" works bears the title "Pythagoras." However, the decisive influence in shaping the views of Democritus had arrived from Miletus in Abdera philosopher Leucippus. Democritus became his faithful disciple, took from him and further developed the atomic system.

Leucippus is considered to be a disciple of Zeno the Eleatic. It is from the Eleatic Leucippus took the idea of ​​Being. But, unlike them, he insisted that there Nothingness par with Being. For the recognition of the existence of Nothingness Epicurus jokingly nicknamed him "nonexistent philosopher."

With a light hand Epicurus subsequently spread opinion that the philosopher Leucippus actually existed. The situation was complicated by the fact that the positions of Leucippus and Democritus in ancient times did not differ, and submitted on a "Leucippus and Democritus taught that ...". Greatest severity so-called "problem Levkippova" reached when it was there was talk that "Leucippus" - alias young Democritus. Although the identity of Leucippus polulegendarnogo among historians of philosophy firmly established view that a philosopher had to be real. He moved from Miletus in Eleyu and then in Abdera, where he was met and Democritus. Leucippus and was believed to be a Greek teacher Democritus. Atomism idea was born in his mind, and he gave it to Democritus, who himself was ready to comprehend the philosophical idea.

So, thanks to Leucippus - and perhaps not only him - Democritus acquainted with the philosophy of the Milesian school and Eleatic. Suggest that he was a student of another prominent Greek philosopher - Anaxagoras. And evidence suggests that Democritus was well acquainted with the philosophy of the Sophists, even engaged in a polemic with its creators.

When his father died, Democritus, according to some of their practical fellow, made unwise simply inexplicable act: from the inheritance left to him and his brothers, he chose not land, not the house, not slaves, and money, however, at the time a lot. But money reasoned bewildered citizens, can be easy to lose. However, money is not Democritus chosen randomly: he intended to travel. Eight years Democritus traveled: it not only interested in other lands, cities and nations, but also the knowledge that he could get there. In other words, Democritus quite early identified himself as a person by way of "human knowledge," sage philosopher.

Returning from a trip, he did not bring any goods or money (on concepts residents Abdera, he did not bring anything, because come poorer than it was before). It was then that against him and was sued for misappropriation of inheritance.

He was tried in the late 440's BC. Oe. Embezzlement inheritance law abderskogo policy was seen as a serious crime. Civilian prosecutor indignantly expounded events leading the young man to illegal actions. He said that the rich Damasipp, dying, left his huge inheritance three sons - Damas, Herodotus and Democritus in the hope that they will redouble his condition. Democritus did not wanted to have any land or cattle, or slaves, he chose a smaller share, consisting of money. But even this part was an enormous sum - 100 talents. However, ungrateful son did not use them on any trade, nor even for the purchase of goods! He went on a long journey and eight years wandering in the different countries.

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