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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Mo Tzu (Moe Dee) (Approx 480-400 BC BC)

The great Chinese scholar, an expert in the field of social ethics; outspoken opponent of Confucius. The basic thesis of the teachings of Mo Zi of "universal love and mutual benefit" - an attempt to kind of ethical justification idea of ​​human equality. Views of the thinker and his students collected in the book "Mo-tzu."

Reliable data about the dates of the life of Mo-tzu, however, did not survive all sources agree on the fact that he lived and worked at the latest V century BC. Oe. If to believe the ancient Chinese historian Sima Qian, which Mozi lived after Confucius, the historical framework of the activities of active thinker, probably limited to the period from the 60s to the turn of the century V V-IV centuries BC. Then e .... have approximately the 60th years. Consequently, it can be argued that the founder of the school Mozi lived a long life of about 80 years.

Birthplace Mozi also do not know exactly. According to some sources, he was born in the kingdom of Lu, on the other - in the realm of Sun, and others claim that the sage was born in Zheng and even Chu. But most authors consider the place of his birth kingdom Lu, one of the centers of culture and crafts of ancient China. Mo Tzu came from a family of artisans, was well educated. Students called him "teacher of teachers Mo" (Zi Mo-tzu), or simply Mo Tzu - "Master Mo". Name philosopher Dee.

He was familiar with all the cultural achievements of his time, knew folk songs and odes to the court, subsequently formed the "Book of Songs" ("Shijing"), as well as the content of historical annals "Shanshiev." This is evidenced by the frequent references to such sources in his treatise "Mo Tzu" As reported in the treatise "Huai Nan Zi", "Mo Tzu studied the case and six servicemen Arts Confucians, but found their doctrine, and especially their teaching about the rites, pompous and unnecessary, he departed from the principles of the Zhou Dynasty and began to read the principles Xia ", that is the period when the class society is still in its infancy.

In the book "Huai Nan Zi" says that Mo-tzu was "dissatisfied with the teachings of Confucius, as Confucians demanded a three-year mourning and magnificent funeral, this led to the ruin of farmers, destroyed by the hands of artisans and tillers of wealth and made them beggars". The chapter "Yao lyue" the same book reveals the reason why Mozi idealized the Xia Dynasty (about 2033-1562 years BC. E.) And rejected the orders of the Zhou Dynasty (1066-771 BC years., e.). "In times of Yu in China was severe flooding Yu himself came with a hoe ahead of the commoners, cleaning riverbeds, doing a lot of ducts.

In a grim struggle against the forces of nature, killing many people. They were buried immediately, without any celebrations and ceremonies. These modest funeral comply with the principle "for savings in the graves," which embodied moistskie ideals of modesty and appropriateness. Legendary ruler Yu, Celestial saved from a terrible disaster was for Mo Tzu and his followers an example of the greatness of man who fought for universal interests, a role model.

Mo Tzu, released from the bottom, and knew their lives. Even when the thinker has achieved notoriety and was surrounded by honor and respect of hundreds of students, he remained humble and exacting to itself, to the end of his days studying. Mo Tzu was always ready to go where people needed help, it differs by a constant willingness to sacrifice. Even Confucian Mencius was forced to admit: "Mo Tzu advocate of universal love. If in the name of China took advantage erase myself into a powder, then he would have done it. "

As evidenced by the many ancient books, Mo-tzu was proficient in building fortifications, and in the protection of the city walls. He led an ascetic life. Han historian Ban Gu said that "the chimney in the house where he was staying Mo Tzu, never blackened by smoke." During his long, full of vicissitudes of life, he has visited many kingdoms - Lu Qi, Song, Zheng, Chu Yue and others, met with prominent public figures and scientists of his time. More often than not, as evidenced by the head of the treatise "Mo Tzu", describing the activities of a thinker, he visited the kingdom of Lu, Qi and Chu.

As head of the school moistov he middle of V century BC. Oe. gained immense popularity and credibility. This allowed him to conversations with the rulers and nobles hold independently, with great dignity. In the book "Mozi" recorded many facts showing that the sage refused to accept any gifts or even larger plots of rulers who refused to follow his teachings. Tradition says that when Mo Tzu drove to the palace and some ruler heard wafting out the sounds of music and ritual celebrations, he turned his wagon and stopped by the palace. He encouraged his followers to constantly learn, educate them in the spirit of devotion to the principles of selfless service to justice.

In the chapter "Chen Zhu," cited the case of a pupil Mozi Gao Shi-tzu. The latter was invited to serve the ruler of Wei, who appointed him to the high office with a good salary. However, three days later, Gao Shi Tzu Wei left as governor listened to advice, but did nothing to implement them. Learning about this act of his pupil, Moe Dee was genuinely pleased and praised Gao Shi Tzu for the dedication of Justice.

This fact became evident desire moistov to realizing their principles. Mo Tzu himself was an example of the unity of political beliefs and practices. Great thinker Zhuangzi did not agree with the teachings of Mo Tzu, nevertheless spoke respectfully of his personal qualities.

Historical evidence draw Mozi not only as a great thinker, but also as a speaker and an outstanding diplomat.

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