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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » From Clazomenae Anaxagoras (500-428 BC Oak E)

So, there are various bone seeds, but is dominated by bone in meat also has all sorts of seeds, but most of the pieces of meat. The remaining seeds are present in a single thing, just not observable. All substances arise from "podobochastnyh" seed particles, resulting in two postulates: "all in all", "out of - everything."

Seeds, which consist of things Anaxagoras understood as inert particles fixed. Driving impetus that drives those seeds and makes them connect and disconnect, is the mind (nous). In the history of philosophy have been attempts (eg, Plato) interpret nous of Anaxagoras as spiritual, but in fact, the mind is understood as Anaxagoras and spiritual and material as mechanical force. It determines the order in the world. Nous of Anaxagoras is both a cause or basis of the world order.

In the field of knowledge Anaxagoras believed that the main role belongs to the senses. However, it is not an absolute of sensory perception, understanding that feelings lacks reliability, truth, their statements require correction. Moreover, he emphasized the mind in the learning process, considering that the seeds of which are made up things, can not be perceived directly, we know of their existence through the mind, they are perceived only with the mind.

With cosmological conceptions Anaxagoras linked one event, the date of which is known more or less accurately. This fall of a large meteorite in the years 467-466 BC. Oe. near the mouth of the river Egospotamy (on the northern coast of the Aegean Sea). Ancient writers unanimously argued that Anaxagoras predicted the fall of the meteorite, and they saw in this a manifestation of the greatest wisdom predicting philosopher. Of course, neither of which the prediction in the strict sense is not out of the question. Closest to the truth was, apparently, Plutarch, who wrote about it this way: "They also say if Anaxagoras predicted that if the body is in heaven subjected to any vibration or shock, then one of them can break and fall.

From the words of Plutarch that Anaxagoras predicted the fall of this particular meteorite, as proof of the possibility of such phenomena. Meteorite fall in the years 467-466 BC. Oe. seemed a brilliant confirmation of his concept of the heavenly bodies as hot boulders held in the height of the power of gyration. This concept was developed by him before this date - hence the visibility predictions. It seems likely that Anaxagoras made a trip to the crash site of a meteorite and he looked it. We do not know whether he lived in this period were constantly in Athens or was it during his wanderings in the cities of Greece. Evidence indicating that he lived in Athens for nearly thirty years, say more in favor of the second possibility. And if so, then he came to Athens as a man already famous for his wisdom and learning.

Physical Theory of Anaxagoras, which became the subject of special attention to Aristotle, on the one hand, and on the other - modern scholars of ancient philosophy was developed, apparently, in the later life of the philosopher. As with other similar concepts of modern thinkers Anaxagoras - Leucippus and Empedocles, she experienced a powerful impact ideas of Parmenides. We do not know if ever he met with Anaxagoras Parmenides (this could happen during the famous Parmenides and Zeno visit Athens in the middle of V century BC. E., Reported in several of Plato's dialogues), or whether it was familiar with the views of Elea sage only in his poem, has acquired by the time fame. Anyway, in the extant fragments of the writings of Anaxagoras, we clearly feel the echoes parmenidovskih (and perhaps also zenonovskih) formulations.

More controversial is the question of whether Anaxagoras familiar with the doctrine of the elements of Empedocles and Leucippus atomistics. Categorically deny the possibility that any other we have no right, as his work, setting out the results of his scientific and philosophical studies, Anaxagoras wrote, apparently, already in his declining years. After all, can not be considered an indication of random Aristotle that Anaxagoras was "age before Empedocles, and for his later it"

It is possible that the emergence and rapid spread of this work was the formal pretext to accuse Anaxagoras of impiety. This work Anaxagoras was also the only one in this respect Anaxagoras did not differ from most pre-Socratic philosophers. Reports that Anaxagoras were other writings, completely unreliable. Vitruvius Roman scholar, author of the famous treatise "On Architecture", indicates, among other things, that Anaxagoras, as well as Democritus, wrote something on a theatrical perspective, but it was, apparently, not scientific works, but only brief instructions for decorators.

Plutarch reports that while in prison, Anaxagoras studied the problem of squaring the circle It was fashionable then the problem, the solution of which worked sophists Hippias and Antiphon, mathematician Hippocrates of Chios, etc. But as far as Anaxagoras, there is no evidence that these his classes led to any results. Anaxagoras essay was written a simple and clear prose, which served as a model for other treatises of Democritus and later scholars. And in this respect Anaxagoras followed his predecessor Milletian.

The writing consisted of Anaxagoras, apparently, of several books: the first of them was presented cosmogonic concept and formulated the general principles of his theory of matter, and subsequent books were devoted to specific issues of cosmology, meteorology, physical geography, biology (particularly embryology) psychology (in particular, the problem of sensations), etc. We do not know whether contained in the books of Anaxagoras any judgments historical or sociological nature, later sources store about this complete silence. But even without this essay Anaxagoras cover all of the then knowledge "of nature."

Come down to us about twenty fragments of this work, much of which is cited Neoplatonist Simplicius (VI century BC.

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