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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » From Clazomenae Anaxagoras (500-428 BC Oak E)

Ancient Greek philosopher, mathematician and astronomer, founder of the Athenian philosophical schools. Was accused of atheism and banished (431). Copyright doctrine of indestructible elements - "seeds" of things (gomeomery). The driving principle of world order - the mind (nous), which organizes the elements.

Anaxagoras was born around 500 BC. Oe. in Klazomenah - small but while prosperous seaside town of Asia Minor Ionia. Father Anaxagoras, Gegesibul (or Eubulus), was a prosperous man who left after his death, a considerable fortune. However, Anaxagoras at an early age has awakened a passionate interest in scientific research and absolute indifference to any practice. So he soon gave way he had received an inheritance property (which included significant land property) next of kin, and he left and went on pilgrimages Clazomenae. It is unknown whether he committed, like Democritus, traveling to the Middle East (the era Greco-Persian wars, which accounted for youth Anaxagoras, may not be very conducive to this), but at some time Anaxagoras was in Athens and settled there.

Moving Anaxagoras in Athens connected with deep historical and cultural implications of it symbolized the transfer of learning to the Ionian Attic soil. Athens, which was previously home to government officials, legislators, generals, found finally the first major philosopher. Pupil of Anaxagoras, Archelaus, was already revolutionized Athenian so Anaxagoras can be considered the founder of the philosophical school of Athens, which gave the world many subsequently brilliant thinkers, and primarily, of course, Plato and Aristotle. Despite the fact that being Metekov, ie a foreigner who is not entitled Athenian citizens, Anaxagoras could not participate in political and public life of Athens, he soon took a prominent position in the spiritual elite of the city, which undoubtedly contributed to his friendship with the leader of Democratic Party of Pericles, who later became the de facto ruler of the Athenian republic. Many later sources call Pericles pupil of Anaxagoras. Direct apprenticeship here could hardly be the case, but can be considered certain that Anaxagoras and Pericles respected listened to his opinions and advice.

The second wife of Pericles, Aspasia famous, intelligent and educated woman, has formed a circle of prominent representatives of the then Athenian intellectuals that included tragedian Euripides, sculptor Phidias and others belonged to this mug and Anaxagoras, brokerage, in particular, a great influence on Euripides, as evidenced by several fragments of the works of the famous tragedian, containing unmistakable echoes the views of Anaxagoras.

By the end of the 30s the V century BC. E., When Pericles position as head of state was less strong, his political opponents prosecute individuals who were close to him, including Phidias, Anaxagoras and Aspasia. Accusatory language in each case were different, but the political implications of these cases was clear they were all aimed at undermining the authority of Pericles, has enjoyed great popularity among the Athenian population. Anaxagoras was accused of impiety and spread the teachings of the heavenly bodies, conflict with traditional religious beliefs. Philosopher facing the death penalty, with the assistance of Pericles, he secretly left Athens.

Anaxagoras recent years spent in Lampsacus - rich trading city on the shores of the Hellespont. He died in 428 BC. uh ... surrounded by honor and respect lampsakskih citizens. For a long time after the death of the philosopher lampsaktsy arranged in his memory the annual children's festival.

This is the external outline of the life of Anaxagoras. Difficult to say anything about his scientific biography, in particular on the evolution of his philosophical views. Interest in science, as has been said, he awoke in his early youth. Living in Klazomenah located near Miletus, Anaxagoras could easily find and read the works of famous Milesians - Anaximander and Anaximenes, it turned out, apparently, a huge influence on the formation of his own worldview. Not accidentally later doxography called Anaxagoras disciple Anaximenes.

Just listen to Anaximenes, Anaxagoras, of course, could not, even as a boy: the last great representative of the Milesian school died, apparently, even before the birth of Anaxagoras, but his ideas influenced the young klazomentsa.

This is especially true of the doctrine of the origin and structure of the cosmos, considered as an entity. On Anaxagoras say that in his youth he enjoyed watching the celestial phenomena from the top of Cape Mimanta, located next to the Klazomenami. We can assume that it was not accurate astronomical observations of rising and setting of stars, planetary motions, etc. Astronomer in the strict sense has never been Anaxagoras, and his astronomical knowledge, even in the later period of his activity remained quite primitive. In this respect inferior to his contemporary Anaxagoras Pythagoreans, not to mention the Babylonian astronomers, who owned a perfect method of astronomical observations. Anaxagoras attitude to the night firmament was, rather, the aesthetic character.

According to legend, when asked Anaxagoras, for what better born than be born, he replied: "To contemplate the sky and the device of the whole cosmos." Space hit Anaxagoras perfectly reasonable organization that seemed to him, could not be the result of blind, indiscriminate force.

Anaxagoras, like its predecessors the ancient Greek philosophers, raised the question of what is the foundation of the world. Unlike its predecessors, this foundation of the world he saw in small particles of material - seeds of things, which he called gomeomeriyami. According to Anaxagoras, the world is eternal, uncreated and indestructible it. Certain things are composed of individual seeds. Nature of things, its properties depend on the predominance of one or another type of seed.

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