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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Heraclitus (544-483 BC Oak E)

The ancient Greek philosopher, the representative of the Ionian school. Considered the initial fire of the world, which also has a soul and mind (logos) by condensation of fire all things arise, by discharging it back. Expressed the idea of ​​continuous change, becoming ("everything flows", "one can not enter twice the river"), that opposites are in the eternal struggle. Major works: "On Nature."

Around mid-III century BC. Oe. the basis for the chronology of Ancient Greece has laid down the Olympic Games, the first game, according to legend, took place in 776 BC. Oe. Ancient Greeks believed that a person reaches physical and spiritual maturity to forty years, and called this period of human life, "acme". According to Diogenes Laertius, "acme" Heraclitus falls on the 69th Olympiad (504-501 years BC. E.). This means that Heraclitus was born about 544-541 years BC. Oe. According to the etymology of the name "Hercules" is derived from the name of the goddess Hera and the word "nice", "celebrated", ie, means something like "Geraslav." Diogenes Laertius reports that one version of Heraclitus called Blosonom father and girlfriend - Gerakontom. Diogenes himself is inclined to believe the first version more credible. All sources are unanimous in asserting that Heraclitus came from Asia Minor Greek city-state of Ephesus.

Ephesus was one of the twelve Ionian policyholders and was founded in the XI century BC. Oe. The name "Ephesus" city was named after one of the mythical Amazons. Ephesus was located in the fertile area of ​​the river Kaistros flowing into Kaistriysky Bay (now Kushada Bay, north-west of the island of Samos). Ephesus together with other insurance policies of the Greek world has gone through the process of democratization, power shifted from the royal and aristocratic birth to the democratic sections of the population that has a direct relation to Heraclitus of Ephesus. He was of royal lineage Katridov. However, while not only could not claim to be associated with his pedigree privileges, but also on their own refused even those privileges that still relied representatives deposed royal birth or descendants of the aristocracy. One source said that because of "pride" Heraclitus lost to his brother the title of king, which he had inherited from his father. Most researchers believe this message believable.

Regarding the motives can only guess. Some scientists believe that Heraclitus san king refused to protest against the triumph of democracy in Ephesus. Renunciation allowed Heraclitus "join on an equal footing with other" best "citizens in the midst of political events. "They say that Heraclitus convinced tyrant Melanka abdicate power. Usually researchers do not trust this report, in particular, have expressed doubts about the existence of Ephesus in the era of the tyrant Melankomy Heraclitus. Others, however, referring to Herodotus, according to which the Persian general Mardonius deposed (in 492 BC. E.) Ionian tyrants, and all set in the respective cities democratic government, it is believed that at Ephesus under Persian rule tyrant rules by apparently Melankoma, which, like the rest of the Ionian tyrants, Mardonius was overthrown.

Heraclitus, who was about 28 years old and who longed to turn around, perhaps persuaded Melanka abdicate power in favor Hermodorus. But Hermodorus rules long. All attempts to establish a role in the history of Hermodorus Ephesus and the reasons for his expulsion were inconclusive. Heraclitus himself said: "It would be all adults Ephesians strangle and leave the city adolescents, because they drove Hermodorus, between them naipolezneyshego husband, saying," Let there be none among us naipolezneyshim, and if such exists, it shall be at abroad and with strangers. "

Hermodorus may claim to one-man rule. In this regard, researchers pay attention to the statements of Heraclitus, in most cases favoring sole form of government. Whatever it was, needless exile Hermodorus could happen in a democracy. Sharply negative reaction to the expulsion Hermodorus - not a unique case, talking about Heraclitus discord with their fellow citizens. Here is what we read in another fragment. "Do not leave your wealth, Ephesians, it was clear that as far as you are evil." In those days, scientists, philosophers often settled at churches who are willing to provide housing to the wise. But at the same time from the Greek scholars, philosophers, that applies to Heraclitus, required neither perform priestly duties or imitation lifestyle priests.

Living in the house, Heraclitus, according to the evidence, sometimes playing with the children in the bone and other children's games, sometimes indulged in "idle" speculation. Found him playing grandmother Ephesians he said, "What are you, a vicious, surprised? Is not it better to do this than for you to conduct the affairs of state? ". Diogenes is said that the philosopher rejected the Ephesians to make laws for them on the grounds that they have ingrained "bad governance". If these legends lies a grain of historical truth, it is reduced, perhaps, to the following: Heraclitus, like all thinkers of the period of the Greek classics, was first and foremost a politician, being in the midst of political and social life of Ephesus, he took a keen interest for social change and political events of his time. In short, Heraclitus was "polis" Greek, and it means - "born" politician.

It is possible, however, that the failure of the political arena, anger and annoyance with their fellow citizens made him (probably in adulthood and later life) leave the political arena and to refuse to participate in public affairs. Greeks were astonished - a descendant of the royal family of poverty and chose the path of reflection.

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