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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Confucius (551 (552) -479 BC BC)

But it did not bring any results.

However, although tradition attributes to Confucius influential positions in Lu is questioned.

Confucius gradually became convinced that the princes least interested in his teachings. Since then, he finally learned "the imperative of Heaven": let him not destined to be a minister, he will find another way to serve the people. He will always remain free teacher, "bell" true life.

Began years of wandering. Confucius everywhere accompanied by a crowd of students, who shared with him the hardships of nomadic life, he continued to teach them, instilled a love of literature and ancient rites. In leisure hours he sang them old songs to the accompaniment of a lute, and his game served them consolation in moments of sadness. But such moments were rare. In the troubled years of civil strife each traveler could easily undergo an unexpected attack. Confucius several times in mortal danger, the house where he was, surrounded by a raging mob, and only a miracle he managed to avoid violence. But the sage did not lose composure. He was sure that the fate of his stores.

Sneaking old. Confucius began to weaken. From time to time it woke up feeling bitter. "My days at the end - he sighed - and I have not known." But then he added: "I do not complain. Heaven knows me. " Sometimes he again felt thirsty work. Then he began to dream of distant travel, wanted to go out on the sea, there to preach his doctrine.

Confucius was about seventy years old when his wife died. Although he was never close to her emotionally, he took this event as a reminder of the inevitable end and increasingly began to talk about death. One day, standing on the river bank, he immersed himself in the sad reflections on the transience of life. "Everything passing - he said - like this trend does not stop, day or night," Soon son died of Confucius, and after him his favorite disciple Yan Yuan, selflessly devoted teacher. Yan Yuan's death shocked the philosopher. Confucius felt that it is his turn. All this time, he, nevertheless, did not stop working. He wrote the book "Chyuntsyu" - the chronicle, which was supposed to reflect the era of enmity and strife. "For her to know me and it will judge me" - he said. He wanted to live a little, to bring his plan to the end, but he soon felt that his strength is running out.

He began to attend visions and dreams. When he fell ill, the disciples asked the elder to pray for healing spirits.

"And should it do so?" - Asked Confucius, and when he was told that the rules require to do so, he said: "I prayed for a long time," this he perhaps wanted to say that his whole life was service sky. In 479 BC. Oe. he interrupted his literary pursuits. In conversations with the student Tzu Kung, however, he kept returning to ancient times. He again began to complain that "there was not a single ruler who wanted to become his disciple."

His last words were: "Who after my death will take the trouble to continue my teaching."

In painful reflections on the fate of society riven with contradictions, the reasons nevoploschaemosti Sky laws in real life, the imperfections of human nature, Confucius came to the conclusion that nothing positive can not be achieved, if not guided by correct principles. In the comprehension of their meaning, and he saw his own activities, life itself. "If you learn the right way dawn (dao), then at sunset and you can die."

Image of the "noble man" (chun-tzu) as a social ideal permeates conversations of Confucius with his disciples. Its main quality - "jen".

This is a concept introduced by the teacher, has no literal equivalents in European languages ​​and is close to the meaning of "humanity", "humanity", "humanity" (sometimes "human element") It characterizes the ideal ratio, which should be primarily between fathers and sons, brothers, between the rulers and officials, friends.

"What is jen?" - Fan Chi asked. The Master replied: "It means to love people" - and always and everywhere to express love.

"If I want to be benevolent, benevolence (jen) comes," - said Confucius.

Jen - that a certain type of behavior. "If a man is hard, persistent, simple, sparing of words, it is close to philanthropy." Confucius said Zi-Zhang: "He who is able to show in China five [qualities] is merciful" - that these qualities. "Reverence, courtesy, honesty, resourcefulness, kindness. If a person is respectful, it does not despise. If a person is affable, his support. If a person is truthful, then trust him. If a person smetliv, he achieves success. If man is good, he can use the other. "

But this notion of "jen" Confucius is not limited to the noble husband. Such a person would have to have more quality and "wen", which meant teaching, education, spirituality, combined with a love of learning and nestesnitelnostyu in seeking advice from the subordinate, as well as - feature "ho" - courtesy without flattery, principled without imposing their views to others, the ability to establish themselves around good human relations.

Tzu-kung asked, "Is it possible to follow the whole life in one word.

The Master replied: "This word - reciprocity. Do not do to others what you would not wish for yourself. " Confucius taught that politeness is necessary for everyone, but especially - civil servants. He considered her control. When asked whether you can control using the courtesy he expressed surprise: "What is the difficulty? If using politeness can not be controlled by the state, then what is the "know."

Over the years, the Chinese bureaucratic practice politeness was not just a necessary attribute, but almost ritual form brought to refinements that Europe was perceived with irony and proverbial "Chinese ceremonies."

Confucius believed that the path to perfection, to the Tao begins with poetry, determined by "whether" and ends with music.

The phrase "if," as well as "jen" - the basic concept in Confucius and also has no clear equivalent in European languages.

Originally it meant shoes to be worn in religious ceremonies, and hence the two original values ​​set prescription behavior (propriety) and ritual (etiquette).

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