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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Confucius (551 (552) -479 BC BC)

Much more important is to use their knowledge to serve the people.

Someone trying to humiliate the teacher made fun of his "haughty air, insinuating manner and perseverance." Hardly any of these charges were fair enough. Confucius was always peculiar genuine modesty. He was unfailingly courteous, attentive, friendly, wore simple clothes of black and yellow. In the circle of disciples, he was cordial and natural, alien arrogance. He never flaunted his education and was able to listen to advice. Students exerted great influence on him. More than once he changed his decision on their advice, listened to them reproaches justified before them.

But in the court of Confucius behaved differently at the gate, he bowed his head low, in the throne room stood breathlessly froze in ceremonial poses, spreads his arms, made stately bows, in a word, revived the ancient court etiquette. On the street it is also closely followed the propriety of her every movement. His manners were calculated and are dictated by strict rules. In a carriage riding, without turning his head to welcome rite treated extremely seriously. And all this was done not out of pride or conceit, but in the name of reviving the traditions. Lifestyle Confucius was not an ascetic, though he believed it necessary to be able to be content with little. Basically his life was no different from other life scientists and officials. In family life, he has not found happiness, a circle of disciples became his true family. Students were usually not much younger than him, but he liked to call them "my kids." Confucius did not promise to give students a higher secret knowledge. He instructed them in a simple earth science, which was selflessly devoted himself. "I'm just a man - he said - that in a passionate pursuit of knowledge forgets about the food in the joy of learning and forget about the troubles that does not notice the approaching old age."

All knowledge, according to Confucius, was reduced to the study of historical heritage. "Master, - says the" Lun-yu "- taught four things written, rules of behavior, loyalty and candor." In other words, he did not go beyond the boundaries of literature, history and ethics. Sometimes students have thoughts that mentor hides some secrets from them. But Confucius decisively rejected it: "I'm not hiding anything from you. There is nothing that I would not show you. That's my goal. " Son tried to ask Confucius. But it turned out that his father very little talk with him. He only asked his son: if he studied "Shi Jing" and rules of decency. This completes the Confucius knowledge base. In the understanding of debt ruler particularly pronounced similarity with Plato Confucius. Just as Plato, who believed that the government should stand "worthy", Confucius constantly pointed out the necessity of the moral authority of the government. Mainly for Confucius in relations between the state and the people is the ability to maintain the trust of the people. Otherwise, the state does not resist. Find a monarch who would fully submit to the authority of the philosopher, was not so easy. Kingdom disintegrated into large country, once conquered by Chou, was in a state of incessant internecine wars. Ancient rules have been violated, and came to the fore greed and greed, betrayal and intrigue, deceit, betrayal, murder, constant wars. Confucius visited kingdoms and principalities of Qi, Wei, Chen, Tsai and others trying to find a patron. One day, he seemed unable to impress the Prince of Qi, who promised to appoint him minister.

But dignitaries, fearing competition, began to adjust Prince against Confucius and did everything to thwart his plans. They started laughing sage attachment to ceremonies. "Scientists - just funny talkers, and their words should not be taken as a sample and the law," - they said.

Prince parted with Confucius, saying he was too old to use his advice. But the sage did not despair.

Finally his unsuccessful searches in 497 BC. Oe. Confucius arrived home in Lu. There he was received with honor, and the king, thinking to strengthen his shaky position, appointed governor of the city philosopher Chung-do. Now Confucius could in practice to implement their ideas.

Experience official very useful to him. He tidied agriculture: introduced rotations selected from the rich land, which they used for family cemeteries confiscated property obtained by dishonest means.

However, it soon appeared unhappy with his policies. To cope with the opposition was not so simple. In the first days governorship Confucius had to retreat from the principle of denial of the death penalty and send to the scaffold of his political opponents. Apologizing to the students who have been afflicted by this Act, Confucius said. "Shal Cheng-mao collected group of followers, his speech covered all the malware, he cheated people. He persistently protested against all right, show willfulness. How could it not be executed? "But this penalty has not helped, the opposition grew. Courtiers intrigued against him. Prince oppressed his instructions. And Confucius considered it his duty to "speak the truth in the eye." In the end he was left with no choice but to leave Lou. Students were upset by this failure. But the sage reassured them: "My children, you're worried that I lost a place? The country has long been is in disarray, and Sky wants our teacher was a bell. " He was still convinced that he would get his. Means that he began to use to achieve their goal, students sometimes result in confusion. So, in the principality of Qi he made friends with the wife of the ruler Nitszy - a woman of dubious reputation. Contrary to his rule, he talked to her alone, accompanied her to walk around the city, causing dirty talk. When this attempt failed, he entered the "home servant" to one nobleman, hoping to penetrate through it to the court.

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