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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Confucius (551 (552) -479 BC BC)

Ancient Chinese philosopher, founder of Confucianism main views are set out in the book "Lun-yu" ("Analects").

Confucius declared sacred power of the ruler, and the division of people into higher and lower ("noble men" and "little people") - the universal law of justice. The basis of the social structure put moral cultivation and compliance etiquette ("Do"). From II century BC. Oe. and before the beginning of the XX century in China, Confucianism was the official state ideology.

Confucius, one of the great sages of antiquity, is a kind of symbol of China, its culture and philosophy. Confucius is also considered a great first teacher of all Chinese people. For many tens of billions of generations of Chinese people (partly concerned and their neighbors - the Japanese, Koreans, Vietnamese) piously revered him as a teacher of life.

For Far Eastern civilization Confucius about the same as that for Christians, Jesus or Mohammed for Muslims. But the Chinese sage was still just a man, with a simple and affordable to communicate, and how to be a teacher. He emphasized that in their ideas based on the wisdom of antiquity. "I give, and not create. I believe in the antiquity and love her. " And it was true, this was the power of Confucius.

However, it is clear that Confucius creatively reworked this knowledge, taking into account the reality that made him great, and his teachings - alive for millennia. Confucius did not like superstitions, although they had to endure. The question disciple Zi Lu how to serve the spirits, he replied sternly, "We have not learned how to serve the people, so there's nothing to talk about serving the spirits" (meaning the spirit of a deceased person, a hook and spirits in general - kuei-shen). Continuing his thought, a teacher at the question of death said: "We do not know what life is, what can we know about death?" However, the teacher did not accidentally treated with patience superstition.

Confucius belonged to an old aristocratic family, genealogy that dates back to the Shang Dynasty Yin, ruled China until the XI century BC. Oe. After the death of the blows intsev Zhou (1027 BC. E.), One of the descendants of the Shang Dynasty Yin Chou received from the management of the inheritance Sung. Relative Sung Kun ruler was that in the VIII century BC. Oe. served as Chief of the troops inheritance (Sima) has turned into a rather large kingdom. Omnipotent Ruler of the kingdom Minister Sung wanted, according to legend, to take away his wife Kuhn. Complicated love-political intrigue, as described in the chronicle, chronicle "Tso Chuan", led to the fact that the Sung ruler nor endorse the intention intriguer, was removed from the throne, and under his successor got his all-powerful minister. Coon was killed and his wife moved into the house honors Minister where virtuous woman, however, hung on his belt. Consequence of intrigue was forced survivors fleeing clan members in the kingdom of Lu, where some time later and was born Kung Fu Tzu. Name Confucius - Latinized form of the name of the Chinese Kung Fu-tzu, meaning "teacher-kun."

His father Shu-liang He was a brave soldier, later commander of the fortress Zou, and legends depict him a man of immense growth and unusual force, known for military exploits He had a wife and nine daughters, but he had no son. However, concubine bore a son, but he was a cripple. And then, at the turn of the eighth decade, the old warrior decided to marry again. At this time he married a young girl from the genus Yan. Through due time born a boy, who was given the names and Zhong Qiu.

Of course, much of this story embellished, true information about the childhood of the great sage known very little. His mother was widowed when he was three years old. The story goes that as a child he loved to play with ritual vessels and repeat seen them ceremonial rites. It is unclear where and how much he studied, if studied at all (it is a school for young aristocrats), but no doubt that the boy was curious and capable and always eager to learn.

About himself in his old age he once said: "In 15 years, I felt the need to learn." From the context it is not clear what is at stake. "In 30 years, has stood firm in 40 had no doubt in 50 knew the will of Heaven, 60 allowing keen ear for the truth, and in 70 could follow the desires of the heart, not afraid to stray." Phrase as a whole - is clearly the result of a symbolic life stages of maturation of intelligence. It is possible that the first sentence says that for 15 years the need to learn, to acquire knowledge was the perceived need for Confucius. Poverty did not allow him to do any of the public schools, where trained officials. But that did not stop Confucius. With fifteen years he began to take private lessons and self-education. Mastered hieroglyphic wisdom, he began to study the ancient literature. "I loved the old - he said the disciples - and made every effort to master their knowledge."

Confucius, as Pythagoras and Socrates did not leave a written statement of his teaching. But friends and followers sage recorded his statements in his book "Lun-yu" - "Judgments and conversations." It consists mainly of collected aphorisms which begin with the words: "The teacher said," Sometimes it reported facts from the biography of Confucius, are sometimes caught episodes showing teachers in conversation with friends. Although tradition ascribes Confucius drawing almost all the sacred writings of China, "Lun-yu" is almost the only reliable evidence of the sage and his teachings.

In 19 years, Confucius married a girl from a family of Qi, who lived in the realm of Sun. A year later they had a son. On the occasion of this joyful event ruler Zhang Gong congratulated Confucius, sending him to the servant live carp.

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