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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Pythagoras of Samos (570-500 BC Oak E)

For them, each number had its mystical meaning. Special respect for the Pythagoreans called the number "three" and "ten" According to Aristotle, who introduced us to the views of the Pythagoreans in the most expanded form, the whole universe they determined "Trinity." A number equal to ten celestial spheres.

It Pythagoreans introduced to science and philosophy concept opposites. Contrary they identified as something occurrence which means the death of another. Opposites considered Pythagoreans, exclude each other. Pythagoreans compiled a table of ten pairs of opposites limit and unlimited, odd and even, unity and plurality, right and left, male and female, resting and moving, straight and curved, light and darkness, good and evil, a square and a parallelogram.

Pythagoras is attributed to the doctrine of metempsychosis, that is, the transmigration of souls from one living body to another. He allegedly claimed that he was once revered and Efalidom son of Hermes, then his soul, having been in some plants, appeared in the body of the hero of the Trojan War Evforba, and then in the bodies of two more people.

Strict lifestyle Pythagoreans, their contemplative philosophy, benevolence to man and the desire to do good, to help them attract many people. Here the philosophy was connected to life practice, pointing the way to a man worthy of the fate that awaits him after death. Apparently, this scholar said reaction to security, luxury, immorality and skepticism, which are often developed in the Greek city, grown rich on the wars of conquest and gradually lost the old ideals. In an era of tyrannical rulers, which is famous for the Greek cities of Magna Grecia, the Pythagoreans were dangerous by his preaching. Therefore, they tended to be closed, secret, secret alliance created a real and extended their influence over members of society in many cities, where they held prominent positions They even hidden led policy.

The first important political event, which tradition associates the Pythagoreans, was a war with Sybaris, Croton. In the battle that occurred about 510 years BC. E., Croton army led by the Pythagorean Milo shattered the Sybaris and destroyed their city. Sybaris victory over Croton made the strongest of the towns of Southern Italy; neighbor policies have become addicted to it "allies". However, this victory led to the first outbreak antipifagoreyskogo movement known as conspiracy Key womb. Aristoxenus reports it the following details, "Quilon, Croton husband on his family, fame and fortune came from citizens first, but was otherwise a man heavy, tyrannical temper, rapist and a sower of discord. Strongly wishing to join the Pythagorean way of life, he came back to Pythagoras, when he was an old man, but it was rejected for the reasons stated. After that he and his friends started a fierce struggle against Pythagoras and his associates. " Houses Pythagoreans and their possessions were destroyed and looted, many of the Pythagoreans were killed.

Pythagoras role in the events of that time very difficult to estimate Aristoxenus limited short reference to the fact that "due to these events, Pythagoras went to Metapontum, where, they say, and ended his life." Dicaearchus also confirms that he moved to Metapontum, however, after unsuccessful attempts to settle in Caulonia, Locri and Tarentum, where he was not allowed. Of further Dicaearchus story followed that "Pythagoras died, fled to the temple of the Muses metapontiysky, where he spent forty days without food." Whether the death of Pythagoras followed immediately after fleeing to Metaponto, or between these events some time has passed? If we accept the version Dicaearchus, that Pythagoras died before the end of the VI century BC. Oe. Because Cylon revolt occurred, probably soon after the war with Sybaris, although exactly when - unknown likely Pythagoras died in the mid-90s s V century BC. Oe. The circumstances of his death said that he continued to engage in Metapontum policy: death from hunger in the church (unless, of course, is the real part) indicates political persecution.

A few words about the family of Pythagoras. His wife is usually called Theano, daughter Pythagorean Brontina. However, in later sources it appears as a wife Brontina and (or) the daughter of Pythagoras. In literature psevdopifagoreyskoy Theano was extremely popular. She attributed many works, letters and mass moralizing statements that painted image of the ideal wife and mother. Equally confusing and information about children Pythagorean Timaeus says that "the daughter of Pythagoras was the first maiden in the dance girls, and in marriage - the first married dance" According to Porphyry, her name Miya. Sons of Pythagoras often called Telavga and Arimnesta, although later tradition there are other names of his sons and daughters. Family biography of Pythagoras was composed already in the Hellenistic period, with almost every member of his family attributed to some works. Assess how reliable even the names of his relatives, is almost impossible.

Pythagoras was the first who called his arguments about the meaning of life "philosophy" (Wisdom). "Human life - said Pythagoras, - possible, resorting to imagery, compared with the market and the Olympic Games. On the market there are buyers and sellers who are looking for benefits. Participants at the games they care about fame and glory. But there is still the audience, carefully watching what is happening there. Looks like things in people's lives. Most of them are concerned about wealth and glory, all here in pursuit of them, only a few of the noisy crowds do not participate in this vanity for the sake of honor and prosperity, but contemplate and explore the nature of things and knowledge of the truth like most. They call themselves philosophers - lovers of wisdom, not sofas - sages, because only one deity can have a comprehensive wisdom, and only human nature to strive for it.

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