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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Pythagoras of Samos (570-500 BC Oak E)

Persians did not spare even the sacred temples. Priests were persecuted and killed them or took captive. So hit the Persian captivity, and Pythagoras. According to legend, in captivity in Babylon, Pythagoras met with Persian magicians, met with the teachings of the Chaldean sages, with the knowledge of the eastern peoples for many centuries, astronomy and astrology, medicine and arithmetic. These sciences have Chaldeans drew heavily on ideas about magic and supernatural forces, they gave a certain sound mystical philosophy and mathematics Pythagoras.

Pythagoras freed Persian king Darius Hystaspes, having heard about the famous Greeks. Thinker returned home to attach to the expertise your people.

Since Pythagoras left Greece, there have been great changes. One of the cultural centers of Samos in the war with the Persians turned into a backward province. Freedom, and with it the arts and culture left Ionia. Best minds to escape the Persian yoke, moved to southern Italy, which was then called the Great Greece, and founded a colony towns of Syracuse, Agrigento, Croton.

"Reaching forty years - says Aristoxenus - Pythagoras, seeing that the tyranny of Polycrates too harsh to free man could endure its supervision and despotism, went to Italy because of this." The year of his departure from Samos Apollodorus considered the first year of the 62nd Olympiad (532-531 BC. E.) Based, is believed to be composing himself Aristoxenean and Timaeus - 529 BC. Oe.

Polycrates came to power at Samos about 540 BC. Oe. and up to 522 years BC. Oe. remained the sole ruler of the island. Period of his reign was very favorable for Samosa: the island was carried out large-scale construction, its economy was booming. Like many Greek tyrants, Polycrates patronized talents: his court poets lived Ivic and Anacreon, worked Demoked famous physician and the creator of Samos tunnel engineer Evpalin. What made Pythagoras of Samos leave? Is communication with the landed aristocracy, hostile Polycrates? Or, as some believe, the political motives of his emigration simply invented Aristoxenus to ascribe glory tiranobortsa? Any answer here is hypothetical. One can only assume that, whether Pythagoras only philosopher and scientist, he probably would have found a place under the rule of an enlightened tyrant. However, he was also a man with strong political ambitions and policies devoted a considerable part of his life. Was it difficult to understand him, after several years of tyranny of Polycrates, Samos that is too small for both of them? Political career under tyranny could bring him only approximate tyrant, but this way is hardly suitable for a personality such as Pythagoras.

Here is how his arrival Dicaearchus (Porphyria in transmission). "When Pythagoras arrived in Italy and appeared in Crotone, he endeared himself to the entire city as people traveled a lot, and extraordinary in nature richly endowed by fate, because he had a majestic appearance and great beauty, noble speech, disposition, and everything else. First, uttering a long and beautiful speech, he charmed the elders gathered in council, then, at their request, he gave instructions in young men after their children gathered together from the schools, and, finally, women, and when they convened to listen to him ". Unfortunately, the picture painted Dicaearchus too similar to fragment Angisfena speeches about Pythagoras and therefore can hardly be regarded as independent evidence. Also unlikely to Pythagoras could so quickly and easily gain influence in a strange city for him - because he arrived in Greater Greece alone, without any support. The fate of such people in the VI century BC. Oe. rarely was enviable. Subsequent success of Pythagoras can really communicate with his ability to convince people, but we have no evidence that he has managed to gain influence in Crotone in the first years of his stay, not to mention months. Probably gradually gained adherents sage of Samos, initially, most likely from among the aristocratic youth. According to Isocrates, however, somewhat ironic, thank Pythagoras was so great that all the boys want to become his disciples, and chose their fathers, that they communicate more with him than doing their own affairs. Young disciples of Pythagoras became obviously the main force of the Pythagorean community, to spread its influence first in Crotone, and then beyond.

There is a beautiful legend that after the first read lectures Pythagoras acquired the 2,000 students who did not return home, and with their wives and children formed a huge school and created a state called "Great Greece", in which was based on the laws and regulations of Pythagoras revered as divine commandments.

In Pythagorean union accepted only men after certain tests, and life at the school was organized according to strict rules. In its original form this alliance did not last long and was defeated by political opponents of the Pythagoreans. But over the centuries in the ancient world were supporters of Pythagoreanism as a doctrine of the real basis of the universe. It became known as the Pythagoreans world space, referring to its harmony and perfection ("kosme" in Greek means "beauty") Perfection of the cosmos, the Pythagoreans argued, based on certain numerical ratios that underlie the movement of heavenly bodies, in basis of musical harmony and even enclosed in the proportions of the human body. Naturally, the arithmetic and geometry of a particular place in the intellectual activities of the Pythagoreans. ("The wisest thing - number", "God - is the number of numbers.") According to legend, the founder of the Union of Pythagoras proved well-known theorem about the equality of the sum of the squares of the other two sides in a right triangle the square of the hypotenuse. Since this theorem is named after him. And at the same time, the Pythagoreans devoted different angles of different gods thus Mystic Pythagoreans combined with the logic that in one degree or another is common to all the early Greek philosophers.

In the number of the followers of Pythagoras saw not just a tool account as we think.

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