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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Pythagoras of Samos (570-500 BC Oak E)

Greek philosopher, religious and political leader, founder pifagorizma mathematician. According to Pythagoras, the principles of mathematics - number - are also the principles of the world, and numerical relations, proportions - a reflection of the harmony of the world. So the world was called "space" - because it domination of order and harmony.

Along with Orphics Pythagoreans developed the doctrine of the transmigration of souls and return, repeating similar. Perhaps the most frequent epithets, surrounded by the name of Pythagoras which appears in popular and indeed in many scientific papers - a "legendary", "semi-legendary" or even "semi-mythical." The reader who is unfamiliar with the sources, may give the impression that the biography of Pythagoras consists of legends and we know about it as much about Homer or Lycurgus, whose existence is still questioned. However, in reality the situation is quite different.

In stories about Pythagoras story from the outset closely intertwined with fantastic fiction, but as we have already noted, separated from one another - perhaps not the most difficult task. Much more difficult from the data looking plausible, extract the real events of the life path of Pythagoras. About his life we ​​know much more than any of his contemporary philosopher, whether Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Xenophanes or as Pythagoras wrote a lot more often. Huge thank Pythagoras served him with a double making it an attractive name for legends, multiply from century to century, it nevertheless helped to keep the memory of historic events of the time.

Information about Pythagoras before his departure to Greater Greece extremely small. Early sources refer to it as the birthplace of Samos, what solidarity and most later writers. Commonly called the father of Pythagoras Mnesarchus. About profession Mnesarchus differing opinions some considered him a wealthy merchant, the other - a goldsmith, carver gems. Mention of such a rare profession does not look like someone's invention, but the first option is still preferable. Samos aristocrat could easily engage in trade bread (but not craft), and the formation and nature of the political activity of Pythagoras clearly indicate nobility and wealth of its origin.

There are several legends associated with the birth of philosophy on one of them, at Delphi, where we arrived with his wife Mnesarchus Parfenisoy - whether on business, whether on a honeymoon - oracle foretold the birth of their son, who is glorified in his eyelids wisdom and beauty chores. God Apollo, mouth oracle advised them to go to Syria. Prophecy miraculously came true - in Sidon Parfenisa birth to a boy. According to ancient tradition Parfenisa Pifiada adopted the name in honor of Apollo Pythian, a son she named Pythagoras, that is predicted by the Pythia (According to another version, Pythagoras (ie "persuasive speech") - is a nickname that was given to him because he had expressed truth is as constantly as the oracle of Delphi). Date of birth of Pythagoras assumed about 570 BC. Oe.

Returning from a trip, happy father erected an altar to Apollo and surrounded the young Pythagoras concerns, which could contribute to the execution of divine prophecy. Future great philosopher and mathematician in his childhood discovered great ability in the sciences. In his first teacher Germodamasa Pythagoras understood the basics of music and painting. For memory exercises Germodamas forced him to teach songs from "The Odyssey" and "Iliad" of Homer. First teacher instilled his young pupil a love of nature and its mysteries. "There are other schools - said Germodamas - your feelings come from nature, but it is first and foremost the subject of your teaching."

According to tradition, using teacher Pythagoras of Samos moved to Lesbos, where he lived with his cousin Zoila. There Pythagoras met poet and philosopher Pherecydes Sirosskim - another Thales of Miletus. Do Pherecydes Pythagoras studied astrology prediction of eclipses, mysteries numbers, medicine and other mandatory for the time studies. After living several years in Lesbos, Pythagoras went to Miletus - the famous Thales. Pythagoras attended lectures Milesian sage, who was well over seventy, and his younger colleague Anaximander. However, most historians doubt that Pythagoras studied under Pherecydes and Thales. For example, ion, first mentioned an Pherecydes next to Pythagoras, says nothing about their personal contacts. But in the next century historian Andron of Ephesus, the author of the seven sages called Pherecydes teacher of Pythagoras. Thus, nothing is certain about the teachers of Pythagoras say. Despite his undoubted affinity to the Ionian tradition and familiarity with the ideas of the Milesian philosophers, none of them probably was not his direct mentor.

All travel Pythagoras referred to the time of his life on Samos. In recent times, attributed to Pythagoras traveled not only to the Egyptians, Phoenicians or Persian magicians, but also to the Babylonians, Ethiopians, Syrians, Indians, Jews, Iberia, Thracians, Arabs and even Gallic Druid priests. On the way to Egypt, Pythagoras for a while stops in Phoenicia, where, according to tradition, he studied under the famous Sidon priests. While he lived in Phoenicia, his friends made sure that Polycrates - ruler of Samos, not only forgave the fugitive, but even sent him letters of recommendation to Amasis - Pharaoh of Egypt.

In Egypt, through the influence of Pythagoras met with the priests of Memphis. He managed to penetrate into the "holy of holies" - Egyptian temples where foreigners were not allowed. To do this, Pythagoras was the ordination of a priest. Learn the language and to withstand all tempt towards knowledge, Pythagoras became a full member of the priestly caste. Stay in Egypt contributed to the fact that he became one of the most educated men of his time.

After the death of Pharaoh Amasis his successor refused to pay an annual tribute to Cambyses, king of Persia, which led to the war.

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