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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Lao-Tzu (Li Er) (Rod 604 BC BC)

Lao Tzu - the honorary name of the greatest Chinese thinker Era Lee (Lee dupe, Lao Danya), the founder of Taoism. He is credited with the authorship of the "Tao Te Ching" (treatise on the ways and virtues) The basic concept of Lao Tzu - the Tao, which is metaphorically likened to water (compliance and invincibility). The effluent from the Tao way of action - inaction (wu wei), compliance, obedience, renunciation of desires and struggles. On the life of Lao Tzu, little is known. Based on information contained in the chapter "Tianxiao" ("Celestial") in the book of Chuang Tzu and the chapter "Life of Laozi" in the "Historical notes," we can say that Lao Tzu was a bit older than Confucius .

Extant essay "Laozi" reflects the ideas of the thinker and the main source for their study. In 1973 Mavandue near Changsha, the grave was opened, referring to the Han time, which found two copies of the works of Lao Tzu, written on the fabric. This instance has given valuable material for the study of the ideas of Lao Tzu. He was born in the kingdom of Chu, in the county of Lee Ku parish in the village Tsyuyzhen. Real Name thinker Li Er Lao Tzu means "teacher Lao." In turn, the Lao - a nickname and it means "elder."

According to legend, his mother wore in the womb 81 years old, and when brought it to light, the newborn was a saddle. He received his surname Lee, as Lee was born under a tree (plum). He had long ears, for which he was given the name Er (ear).

It is known that Lao Tzu was historian, chief curator at the State Archive of the Zhou court. He lived a long time in the capital, many labored trusted him, official and literary texts, a lot of thinking, a lot of talking with visiting people, representatives of different classes and occupations. Impressions from a read, seen and heard evolved in their own conclusions about the nature of all things, the universal laws of natural origin, formation and development of the world. He embodied in their treatise, played a huge role in Chinese philosophy. Completion Chunqiu period when he lived Laozi marked change feudal slave system. Laozi rejected with disgust existing before the principle of "management based on the rules of conduct" and complained bitterly: "Rules of Conduct - they undermine the loyalty and trust, mark the beginning of unrest." At the same time it did not satisfy the principle of feudal "management based on the law," and he anxiously exclaimed: "When growing up laws and orders, the number of thieves and robbers." He also protested against the "worship of the wise" and opposed the aggressive wars waged among themselves rulers of separate kingdoms.

In general, he rejected with disgust old, but at the same time harbored a grudge against the new, and also can not find a real way out of this situation. In this regard, "seeing a weakening of the Zhou Dynasty," Lao Tzu left the service, he settled in solitude and taking "independent" posture, began to look for themselves divorced from the reality of a happy life for yourself. Summarizing the lessons learned during the service, Lao Tzu believed that the root of what is happening in society, "the Troubles" and the "difficult to manage", lies in the "knowledge" and "desires." He said: "Therefore, control of the country by means of knowledge - a misfortune for the country, and govern the country without the help of knowledge - happiness for the country" - and insisted on "management, built on non-action." Lao Tzu believed that they need only ruler himself had "no desire" and then people naturally become ingenuous. To achieve a "lack of knowledge" and "lack of desire", it is necessary to abandon the "worship of the wise" and "do not appreciate the rare items," in other words, to eliminate all causes of desire and stimulating debate. Lao Tzu called it "the implementation of non-action" and said: "Implementation of inaction would lead to the fact that there will be nothing that would not have driven."

Proceeding from this, the perfect control in Lao Tzu could be in the so-called "small country with a sparse population." In such a society, the government should be small, and the population - numerically, and let it ", there are various tools, do not use them. Let people to end their lives do not migrate away from their seats. Even if there are boats and chariots, no need to go to them. Even if there are armor and weapons, it is not necessary to expose them. Let the people again weaves nodules and uses them instead of letters. Let it will be delicious food, beautiful clothing, housing comfortable and joyful life. Let neighboring states afar looking at each other, listen to each other's cocks crowing and dogs barking, but the people to old age and death should not go together. "

According to legend, when Lao Tzu left the Zhou kingdom, at the frontier met his boss and asked to leave anything for his country. And Laozi gave him the manuscript of 5000 characters - that same poem, which came to be known as the "Tao Te Ching" ("Path of virtue, or the Book of the force and effect.") In this short treatise in two parts contains the substance of the doctrine of the Tao. Character Tao consists of two parts "show" - the head and "Zou" - to go, so the basic meaning of the character - the road on which people walk, but in the future, this character has acquired a figurative sense, and has come to mean law, the law .

Lao Tzu, Tao taking the highest category for his philosophy, gave her not only the meaning of the universal law, and to treat it as a source of origin of the world. He believed that the Tao - is "the root of heaven and earth," "the mother of all things" that Tao underlies the world.

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