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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) (623-544 BC BC)

But affected his self-confidence, they became followers of his teachings.

Buddha led a life of wandering preacher. Since then, when he was at the age of thirty-five years of enlightenment dawned, he did not know the rest. Nine months of the year he preached, going from one place to another, and three months to come during the rainy season, spent in seclusion.

Buddha was fed only once a day. If his path led through the village, he took alms, then went into the mango grove on the outskirts of the village and had dinner. After that, the locals heard a sermon of the Buddha. Every day, supporters of his teaching became more and more, and his inner circle included people from different castes.

His followers formed a monastic community. With the spread of missionary work orders started coming to the Buddha and also the laity, who were allowed to follow the teachings without renouncing his position of head of household and the owner of the house, allowing free community began to grow rapidly. Balance between monastic and lay life in the sangha was one of the main features of the mission of the Buddha during his forty years of preaching activities.

Women are also allowed to become members of the Order, although the Buddha's it was ambiguous - he took women reluctantly. In response to the question of his disciple Ananda about how monks should behave in the presence of women, the Buddha said, "Do not talk. Exercise constant vigilance. " Perhaps these instructions explained his belief that the attachment to a woman becomes a major obstacle to the achievement of nirvana. Whatever the reason, these words should be the basis for monastic rules (Vinaya), established by the Buddha.

Buddha died at an advanced age, poisoned food. They say that he died in a state of meditation, leaning to the right hand and supporting the head. This posture is embodied in Buddhist iconography and is interpreted as a transition into Parinirvana Buddha - nirvana without residue, it is a condition in which it was no longer susceptible to degeneration. It happened near the town of Kushinagar, in a wooded area. Dying, the Buddha did not appoint a successor. It seemed that he wanted to Sangha remained relatively non-hierarchical organization. Before his death, the Buddha, referring to Anand, said: "Do not worry, do not cry. Did not I tell you that we are separated, cut off from the dear and loved us?. You served me long, benefiting served with joy, sincerely and unconditionally, was devoted to me body, word and thought. You've got all of the good, Ananda. Do not stop there, and you will soon be released. " Buddhism is the core of the content of the sermon of the Buddha of the "four noble truths", revealed to him the famous night of enlightenment under a fig tree: there is suffering, there is a cause of suffering, there is freedom from suffering is a path that leads to freedom from suffering. In these truths, according to the teacher, the whole law, moral life, leading to supreme bliss. Clarification and development of these provisions are devoted to all the arguments and logical construction of Buddhism.

Birth, illness, death, separation from a loved one, unfulfilled desires - in short, life itself in all its manifestations - that is suffering. In Buddhism, suffering is and what has always been a joy. Relatives, friends, wealth, success, power, joy of the five senses - all considered a chilling human chains. Thus, suffering serves as the only comprehensive reality that has to deal spiritually pretentious, moral perfection of man.

The second "noble truth" - a source of suffering is desire itself, not its essence, and the very existence of "thirst, supporting myself, beauty, coupled with a passion, the fact that it is ready to lead astray, namely lust possess thirst to be thirst flee. " In the "Dhammapada" ("Path of Virtues"), the most famous of Buddhist texts containing sayings of the Buddha, there are these words: "Even the shower of gold coins will not bring satisfaction passions. Wise one who knows the painful passion and little joy from them. "

The third "noble truth" - the suppression of suffering, redemption desires, to be exact - pritushenie their passion. Buddhism recommends a middle way: avoid extremes - as the craving for sensual pleasures, and the absolute suppression of desire. Absence, overcoming suffering designated as nirvana (translated from the Sanskrit "damping", "cooling"). At this Buddha's followers lined up a whole philosophical theory. They did not give in their lyrics definition of nirvana, replacing its numerous descriptions and epithets, which was portrayed as the opposite of Nirvana all that may be, and therefore as a mysterious and ineffable.

Fourth "noble truth" - there is a path that leads to Nirvana. This "vosmizvennaya path", the eight-program of the spiritual elevation:

- True view (mastering the four cardinal truths of the Buddha - this is the starting point as the awareness of the meaning of life)

- True intention (acceptance of these truths as vital program and renunciation of attachment to the world, understanding the meaning of life becomes meaningful motif internally)

- True speech (the above-mentioned motif becomes definite decision - abstaining from lying, Barriers to words and verbal orientations unrelated to designated higher moral purpose - renunciation of the world)

- True actions (decision implemented in deeds - nonviolence, avoidance of harm to the living)

- True life (true deployment actions in the line of conduct, actions form a single strand)

- True effort (wakefulness and vigilance, as evil thoughts tend to come back, reflected in the minds of actions undertaken from the perspective of how they meet their own decisions and be free from evil thoughts)

- True mindfulness (righteous thought - always remember that everything is transitory, moral behavior included in the context of the original meaning of life)

- The true concentration (spiritual samopogruzheniya renounce the world of man, going beyond the boundaries of morality itself as "evidence" of the "meaning of life").

The latter, in turn, goes through four stages is difficult to describe the ecstasy (pure joy), caused by the restriction of privacy and connections with the world, purely contemplative attitude to him, the joy of inner peace due to the release of contemplative interest exemption from joy (ecstasy), together with knowledge of liberation from all sensations of physical and mental unrest perfect equanimity consisting in complete indifference to everything.

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