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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) (623-544 BC BC)

Founder of one of the three world religions - Buddhism.

Name Buddha (from Sanskrit - the enlightened) given by his followers. At the heart of Buddhism - the doctrine of the "four noble truths" there suffering, its cause, and the state of liberation path.

Siddhartha was the son of the ruler Shakya people in northeastern India (now Nepal). From birth he was destined to become the ruler. However, the final choice rests behind him. One queen Mahamaya, wife of King Shuddhodama had a prophetic dream she will give birth to a son and he will become either a ruler or a sadhu (holy renouncing earthly world). The boy grew up in luxury, but it never released outside the palace Siddhartha married a beautiful princess Yashodhara, gave him a son. Soon he was supposed to inherit the throne. However, the hopes of the king was not to be as a result of the four signs Siddhartha decided to learn about life outside the palace and ordered the coachman to accompany him. The first time he saw an old man and asked the charioteer why he so skinny and hunched. Such is the fate of all people, without exception, is the natural and inevitable outcome of life - was the answer. Siddhartha then exclaimed, "What is the meaning and what is the use of youth, if all ends so sad?" When Siddhartha second time left the palace, he met a patient. Prince was struck that the disease does not spare even the most strong and healthy people, and no one knows how to avoid them. Third sign was when Siddhartha saw a funeral procession. People carried on a stretcher corpse. Deceased in India is not hidden from the eyes of people in coffins in a hearse, and the routine burning of the body took place in public, most often on the pier at the river. Siddhartha came to the sad conclusion that people can not influence their destiny. Nobody wants to get old, but still old. Nobody wants to get sick, but people get sick. Death is inevitable, but then life is meaningless. Siddhartha awoke from his sleep and began to understand the meaning of samsara state associated with old age, sickness, death and permanent formation. He was amazed that people accept their fate.

Finally, the fourth sign. At this time, Siddhartha saw a sadhu (saint), walking on the streets with a begging bowl. Sadhu - a "maverick", who believes that in a world in which we live ("kingdom of samsara"), it is impossible to find a home. Legends tell of how a full moon night, Siddhartha left his wife and son went to the border of the kingdom of the Sakya. There he took off his clothes, tonsured hair and beard, and went on already as a wanderer. This event is interpreted in Buddhism as "promotion" Siddhartha - he renounces worldly life and devoted to the search for truth. First, he does yoga. Taming the flesh was for them a prerequisite for spiritual growth. Siddhartha engaged mortification for six years. He limited himself to food and sleep, not washed and walked naked. His authority among ascetics was very high, it appeared disciples and followers. It is said that his fame spread, if the sound of a large gong under the dome of the sky.

Although Siddhartha and managed to raise their consciousness to an immeasurably higher level, he eventually came to the conclusion that it does not bring him to the truth (to the cessation of suffering). He started to eat as before, soon left his followers. Siddhartha continued his wandering alone, find other teachers, but was disappointed in all the exercises.

One day, sitting near the river under the shade of a large tree jambu, later named in honor of the event the bodhi tree (ie tree of enlightenment), Siddhartha decided: "I do not get up from this place as long as I did not condescend enlightenment. Let my flesh fade, let my blood dry, but as long as I do not get enlightenment, I will not move from this place. "

Hard to imagine that happening in the mind of the person who sits still. However, this is characteristic of Buddhism: the truth is acquired in silence, and silence is more than action. He sat in meditation posture and extraordinary concentration and control over his mind.

How consciousness can be distracted, colorfully described in the Buddhist texts, which speaks about the attacks of Yama, the Lord of Death, who understood how important the efforts undertaken by the Buddha, and has sought to counter them, relying on their power. Buddha had to use all his skill and his determination to encourage all, venturing on such an attempt, and it was not easy. All doubts, hesitation had to be discarded. Thorny path of inner struggle was passed - faced a final battle. In the full moon night in the month of Vesak (corresponding to May in the European calendar) Buddha concentrated his mind on vskhodyaschey morning star, and enlightenment dawned on him. Siddhartha became the Buddha: he came out of the darkness of ignorance and saw the world in its true light. Described event called the "great awakening." Truth opened Buddha in all its splendor. It was the completion of the search for truth, which took Siddhartha. Becoming the Buddha, that is absolutely enlightened Siddhartha changed. Thanks to this great event descended on him wisdom and compassion, and he realized his great purpose - to bring the truth to the people. At first he was not sure that he will understand. However, the Buddha yet began to expound his teachings, first read the sermon at Sarnath dharma, where they accidentally met with his former companions. First, students were amazed by his virtues. Formed the first Buddhist community. Buddha started what is known as "the first sermon of the Buddha", or more figuratively, as "the first turn of the wheel of the Dhamma." Not only are the words with which the Buddha turned to his audience, and that assurance he gave them, and which completely subdued them. Initially, five former companions met him skeptical - because it was the same Gautama.

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