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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Thales of Miletus (625 Or 640 Oak - Oak 547 Or 545 BC BC)

Finally, Thales was able to explain the wonderful invented.

In an effort to understand the world in which we live, Thales was interested primarily in what is going on between heaven and earth, that the Greeks called meteors (aerial phenomena). The fact that Thales lived in Greek merchants. In his quest, he was guided by considerations of usefulness: he wanted to ships could deliver their cargo to the port, and so eager to learn why rain falls, what wind, what are the stars by which you can control the ship. Science has no other origin than practice.

Thales later tradition attributed five theorems of geometry (among them - about equal angles at the base of an isosceles triangle and on the division of the circle of diameter in half). In connection with astronomy and accumulate new knowledge, challenges and issues. For example, the Phoenicians, Egyptians and Greeks replaced the lunar calendar came sunny. Greeks have already crossed and close to the modern division of the year into months, days, etc., that is transferred to the solar calendar. And often the accumulation of this kind of knowledge associated with the name of Thales. Here is the testimony of Apuleius: "Thales is undoubtedly the most outstanding of the famous Seven Sages (he's the geometry of the Greeks and the first discoverer, and the nature of the most accurate test, and luminaries experienced observer), small lines opened greatest things: the cycles of the seasons, the winds blow, stars marvelous movement thunders rumbling, meandering paths of the planets, the sun turns one-year, as well as [explained] nascent Moon STAYS, aging - desc dwarfs - obstacles. Moreover, already in the afternoon senile years he invented a divine settlement [proportion], relating to the Sun, [evaluating] how many times its size [diameter]. That measures the sun circle, which runs. "This evidence is likely attributed to the legendary Thales body of knowledge gained in that distant era of different people. About the writings of philosophers before Plato scholars judged by "fragments" in the writings of later authors. Usually it - brief inaccurate retellings of individual thoughts. About Thales works do not even know whether he wrote them all. It is most likely that he created "Maritime astronomy" (in verse, like all early thinkers), also called two of his astronomical treatise (on the equinox, solstice on), but the exact fragments did not reach us. All we can say that the philosophy of Thales based on astronomy, which to him in Greece, no one did.

According to Herodotus, the Lydians in the war with the Medes "during one day of battle suddenly turned to night. This suppression of the day predicted Ionians Thales and even pinpointed the year in advance, and in which it occurred. When the Lydians and Medes saw the day turned to night, then stopped the battle and hastened to make peace. "

However, many doubt that Thales was able to really predict. Some authors admit that Thales could predict an eclipse, but consider this prediction rather than scientific, and practical. After all, people have been predicting it to eclipse watching known recurrence of phenomena, making astronomical calculations.

Perhaps Herodotus, as well as other ancient authors reported that Thales link temporal cycle (lunar months) with the fact that a solar eclipse. When the news came to Miletus about the battle that occurred because of the eclipse, the rumor simply could not compare it with the teachings of the famous Milesians that though the Sun is eclipsed by the moon. Thales really predicted a solar eclipse can only be expected in the new moon, and the prophecy was confirmed.

Thales and the early Ionian scientists sought to establish from which the world is composed of matter. He believed that everything that exists is generated by water, realizing at the same water as wet primitive matter. Water is the source from which everything is constantly happening. The water and all of it happened, are not dead, they are animated. As an example to illustrate his thoughts led Thales substances such as magnet and amber: once the magnet and amber generate traffic, then they have a soul. Thales presented the world as animated, imbued with life. According to Thales, nature, both living and inanimate, has a driving principle, which is called by such names as the soul and God.

Thales believes the original water element from which emerged the land, which would precipitate as this initial element, as well as air and fire, its constituent pairs of water evaporation. All of the water and there is again converted into water.

If the water - a fundamental principle, that the world should rest on the water. According to Thales, the Earth floats in freshwater Ocean like a ship. Then the river are similar techam in the bottom of the ship, and earthquakes - the ship's roll, "circle the Earth is supported by water and floats like a ship, and when they say that the earth shakes, it really rocks on the waves." Contemporaries drank in his words with admiration. Thales attempted to formulate the basic laws of the universe, but is best remembered contemporaries his moral teachings. Plutarch, in his book "The Feast of the Seven Sages" gives the following original statement of Thales:

"What is more beautiful than? World, because everything is perfectly arranged, a part of it.

What wisest? Time, it has given rise to one another and generate.

What is common to all? Hope: its own and those who do not have anything else.

What is the most useful? Virtue, because thanks to her all else can be used and become useful.

What is the most harmful? Vice, for in his presence almost all spoiled.

What is the hardest? Necessity because it is irresistible.

What is the easiest? That corresponds to the nature, because even enjoying often tiring.

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