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Psycology » Persons » Thinkers » Thales of Miletus (625 Or 640 Oak - Oak 547 Or 545 BC BC)

Ancient Greek philosopher, founder of ancient philosophy and science, the founder of the Milesian school, one of the first recorded philosophical schools. Erected all the variety of things to a single pervostihii - water.

Modern European philosophy, as well as all the modern civilization, has its origins in ancient Greece, where we received and the word "philosophy" ("love of wisdom"). However, the first philosophical system originated in VI-V centuries BC. Oe. not in Greece, and on the west coast of Asia Minor, in the Ionian cities, which were founded by the Greeks and that before in Greece, began to develop industry, trade and spiritual culture. The largest of all the Greek cities of Asia Minor was Miletus.

On the first Greek philosophers know very little. Almost no accurate information. All the evidence is usually given with reservations.

In those days the Greeks wrote biographies of prominent people. Subsequently, when the Hellenistic scientists undertook be biographies, trying to collate information of historical and chronological nature, set the accuracy or that information was extremely difficult. Accurate biographical data could also provide and later ancient authors, such as the Athenian grammarian Diogenes Laertius (III century BC. E.), Derives its information from not extant "Chronicles" Alollodora. In the writings of the authors of late antiquity has more legends, anecdotes and various inventions developed over centuries and associated with the names of Heraclitus and other thinkers of the past, rather than reliable information. Customary to begin the story of philosophy with a mention of the seven Greek sages and foremost amongst them - Thales of Miletus.

Seven Greek sages - who are they? Called by different names. But the name of Thales is repeated, often included in the list of the seven sages. Apparently, he was the most popular, the wisest of them. Know about it a lot of legends. Diogenes Laertius in his book "On the life, teachings and sayings of famous philosophers" tells the following, found in the sea fishermen tripod; Milesians decided to give the tripod to the wisest of the wise men. Thales gave, he gave another sage, the other - the third. But in the end the tripod still returned to Thales. According to other accounts, the wisest of the wise Greeks meant Cup King Croesus, and he returned to the circle of Thales, which were sealed in the ancient verse: "... and how wise of the seven sages Thales to observe the stars." There are several theories regarding the lifetime of Thales of Miletus. Diogenes Laertius: "Alollodor in the" Chronology "writes that Thales was born in the 1st year of the 39th Olympiad, lived seventy-eight years (or, according to Sosikrata ninety) and died in the 58th Olympiad. Thus, he lived with Croesus, whose rejected for Galis to cross the river without a bridge. "

It is believed that there is one, at least, the exact date associated with his life - 585 years, when in Miletus was a solar eclipse and when, according to Thales predicted it. If Thales predicted a solar eclipse, it likely was a man of mature age. Consequently, VII-VI century BC. Oe. and there are about lifetime Thales and maybe other Greek sages.

Little is known about the origin of the thinker. Diogenes Laertius: "Thales (and according to the approved by Herodotus and Durida and Democritus) had a son and Eksamiya Kleobuliny kind of felids, and this kind of Phoenician, notably neighbors descendants of Cadmus and Agenor. He was one of the Seven Sages, which is confirmed by Plato, and when at the Athenian archon Damaso naming these seven were wise, he got a first name (so says Demetri Phalerum in the "List of the Archons"). At Miletus he was recorded in the number of citizens, when there appeared together with Nele expelled from Phoenicia However, the majority claims that he was a native of Miletus, and, moreover, from a noble family. "

In the narrative Heraclides states that Thales lived in seclusion ordinary citizen. According to some sources, he was married and had a son Kibisfa, on the other - that he had never married, and fathered her sister's son. When asked why he did not have children, he replied: "Because I love them," and when his mother forced him to marry, Thales, said to have replied: "It's too early!" And when she asked the same question to matured him, then said, "Too late."

About Thales philosophers often express opposite opinions. Some (such as Aristotle) ​​talk about Thales as a practical man who stood firmly on the ground and was very creative in everyday affairs. Other authors (Plato), by contrast, believe Milesians immersed in abstract reasoning thinkers who have absolutely no interest in practical affairs. Thales loved to travel. He visited Egypt, Central Asia, trying to collect in these countries remains of ancient knowledge.

"Teachers he had not, - says Diogenes Laertius, - except for the fact that he traveled to Egypt and lived there the priests. Jerome says that he measured the height of the pyramids by their shadows, waiting for the hour when our shadow is the same length with us. He lived and Thrasybulus, tyrant of Miletus (as reported by Miny). "

It is possible that Thales, traveling, and came to Phoenicia (there is even speculation that it has not Thales Phoenician in origin, although most researchers still agree on the fact that he was miletets). Of Phoenician and Egyptian astronomy in those centuries it was known how to navigate in the sea star.

Thales brought to Greece eastern knowledge (and the first scientific instruments - a protractor). Are these wonderful knowledge, he began the European science. He was the first who wanted to help explain how the world of knowledge - what had previously only told; gods will replace the laws of nature - the East was not engaged.

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