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Anna Freud was born in 1895 and was the sixth, junior, daughter of Sigmund Freud, the founder of modern psychoanalysis. Father waited for his son's birth, and even came up with his name - William, but the girl was born. Martha Freud was difficult to cope with all the children, so soon to come to her sister Minna. This woman became a second mother to Anna. Children rarely saw his father, because he would be constantly busy medical practice and research. When Anna was 13 years old, her father introduced his theory of psychoanalysis, she attended his lectures and even attend the reception of patients.

In 16 years, Anna, who graduated from private lyceum, was faced with the choice of the further way. Education allowed her to go only to the institution that trains teachers, and not to the university, for which it was necessary to finish high school. Before you make this choice, Anna, on the advice of his father went to Italy, where she lived for five months. When he returned, she went to school, and later became a teacher in the same high school, where once studied.

Since 1918, Anna has long been infatuated with psychoanalysis, began to participate in all meetings of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. Her first independent experience was spent in the 1922 study 15-year-old girl and a presentation of the report "beating fantasies in dreams and reality." After that, she took the ranks of the Vienna Psychological Society.

In 1923, Anna Freud start their own practice, opening an office for children in the same room where her father received patients. Father, of course, was pleased with progress that Anna reached in the field of psychoanalysis, he was worried about her only two drawbacks: "stooped posture and overreliance on knitting." Psychoanalysts interpret this hobby as a substitute for sexual life: the constant movement of the spokes symbolize the ongoing sexual intercourse.

In the same year she learned about his father's illness, and quite by accident. It is thanks to Sigmund Freud's daughter was able for so long to fight the disease She took care of all his meetings and reports, and edited his works, helped him develop new concepts and, in fact, became his personal secretary.

In 1925, Dorothy came to Vienna Beurling-Tiffany, daughter of an American industrialist and manufacturer of Tiffany, an admirer of Freud. A few years later, Dorothy moved to Freuds house with their children. It is they and other children Sophie, the other daughter of Sigmund, Anna began to real family. In addition, Dorothy largely shared passion Anne psychoanalysis. With Jeanne Lampi Gru and Marianne de Ree-Crease they made a circle of like-minded psychoanalysts of this group was called the "circle of four ladies."

A year later, Anna Freud became secretary, and a year later - the secretary general of the International Psychoanalytic Society. She always had difficulty getting recognition because she had no medical training, so the main Anna patients were children of her friends. In this work really helped her teacher's education, a practice which it has received, communicating with children Dorothy and Sophie. Familiar noted that Anna was able to find a common language with any child.

Based on their clinical experiences Anna Freud made some conclusions. Feature of child psychoanalysis, in its opinion, is that the method of free association, in which the patient is given the opportunity to say whatever comes to mind without any control by the mind, there should not be applied, because the child simply can not trust their adult mystery why Anna in their clinical studies prefer to use the method of observation. Thoughts and wishes of the child, according to Anna Freud, can be expressed not in words but in action during their experience of different game situations.

Their clash with the outside world creates a conflict that is granted, a beneficial effect on the child's psyche. Ignoring or total absence of desires leads to social exclusion, hysteria and neurosis.

These ideas were reflected in the first book of Freud "Introduction to the technique of child analysis", which was composed of four lectures. It is a vivid example of how the majority of the works were written by Anna: setting out its first topic in a lecture or symposium, and then in the book.

At the same time, Anna entered into polemics with Melanie Klein, also involved in child psychoanalysis distinctive feature Klein theory was that she explored especially the child's mind, using all laws "adult" psychoanalysis. Freud also believed that internal mental instance formed gradually, and therefore, these laws are not applicable to children of psychoanalysis. Over time, this dispute has become not just defending their own opinions by two scientists, and division of the entire child psychoanalysis at the two schools.

In 1937 he published a book of Anna Freud's "Ego and the Mechanisms of protection." It was Anna catalog ego defenses (such as repression, reaction formation, projection, identification with the aggressor, etc.) and described their appearance. She described not only the protection generated by internal structural conflict, but conflict and the "ego" with the outside world (negation). Emphasizing the central role of "ego" and the adaptive significance of ego defenses, Anna Freud opened the way for the development of ego psychology - one of the main trends in contemporary psychoanalysis.

When to power in Germany, Hitler came, scientists began to leave Vienna, but Sigmund Freud, burdened disease, could not decide to move. March 11, 1938, Hitler's troops marched into Vienna, and March 22, Anna is summoned to the Gestapo. She later recalled that it was the worst day of her life, fear of torture, she even took her poison. This day has made her such a strong impression that later Anna avoided to happen in Germany.

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