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Psycology » Psychology as a science

Theory of Rank

key element in the complex dynamics of the death-rebirth experience seems biological birth trauma. Its significance for psychology and psychotherapy was first established and revealed in detail by Otto Rank in his work "The Trauma of Birth" (1929).

Theory Sullivan

Sullivan Interpersonal Theory emphasizes the importance of the various stages of development in human life: infancy, childhood, juvenile era predyunosti, early adolescence, late adolescence maturity. The basis of a healthy mental development of man is the ability to establish close relationships with other people.

Erikson's theory

To understand that Erickson understands mature person, enter the term "identity" personality - one of the central in the whole theory. This term refers to Erickson's image of himself in a variety of relationships to the world with the appropriate forms of behavior that is recognized personality.

Theory Murray

Theory Murray has spawned a wave of research on the needs and methods of quantitative evaluation of personal characteristics. Some of its provisions - such as the need to belong to a group, the need for achieving the desired - got enough reliable experimental confirmation. As for the other claims, the level of their podtverzhdennocti significantly lower.

Freud's theory

In his worldview

development Freud was very complex and contradictory way. Making their first steps in the field of psychiatry, he was guided by the precepts of science materialism of the twentieth century, but as the creator of psychoanalysis scientist withdrawn from them toward идеалистическоиррационалистической "filosofiizhizni" (Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, etc.), under the influence of which had the idea of ​​fundamental importance for human behavior "psychic energy" inherent инстинктивнофизиологическим inclinations of individuals.

Methods of psychological research

Psychology, like other sciences, is used to collect scientific information different methods. But the specifics of the research object - the human psyche - leaves its imprint on the possibility of using a particular method, and its effectiveness. Psychological research methods: observation, experiment, questionnaires, tests, projective techniques.

Branches of psychology

Modern psychology is an extensive system of relatively independent scientific disciplines related to various human activities. These disciplines are called branches of psychology. Emergence of many industries due to the accumulation of a huge amount of scientific evidence and the need for their more rigorous systematization, as well as features of mental functioning while performing different activities. Many of the branches are in turn subdivided into a number of specialized disciplines with a narrower subject of study. For example, medical psychology, which studies the psychological aspects of physician and patient behavior, divided within itself on neuropsychology, which studies the relation of mental phenomena with the physiology of the brain, psychopharmacology, studying the effects of drugs on human mental activity; psychotherapy, studied and used means of psychological pressure on patient; Psychoprophylaxis and Mental Health, developing a system of preventive measures against the development of psychopathology.

The emergence and development of psychology

psychology - the science of the laws of development and functioning of the psyche. The interaction of all living beings with the outside world is carried out by a special kind of mental processes and states. These special processes are inseparable from physiological processes, but not confined to them. For centuries, these amazing and mysterious phenomena collectively called the "soul" and were considered a product of higher being - God. In the views of the ancient soul interpreted animalistic, ie as a special ethereal essence infused into the human body. But Aristotle suggested interpretation of the soul as a way to organize the living body and its behavior, which served as a powerful stimulus to the development of scientific views on mental in the West.

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