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Psycology » General Psychology » Psychology of Personality » Individual human characteristics: ability, talent, genius

Abilities - Individual psychological characteristics of personality, which are prerequisite for successful implementation of an activity.

Ability observed in the process of mastering the activities, how the individual ceteris paribus easily, quickly and at the same time thoroughly learns the ways of the organization and implementation.

Abilities are formed based on instincts - innate characteristics of the human nervous system, in particular its brain. Thus, based on a specially organized optic analyzer, especially of his brain, various abilities can arise requiring distinguish shades of color, brightness, etc. And based on the dominance of left hemisphere processes can line up a variety of skills - to a chess game, legal, engineering activities. Therefore, makings of multivalued, each of which may lead to the development of various capacities.

However, the presence of the deposits does not automatically mean the appearance of abilities. To makings actualized turned into abilities, you need to give the child the opportunity to try their hand at various areas and do it at that age, which is the most favorable for the development of certain abilities.
The fact that a child through various stages of age, to varying degrees, capable of an activity: for example, to subsequently develop artistic abilities, we must allow the child to draw in early childhood, and if time will be lost, it is unlikely he subsequently will succeed. But at the same time, we can not demand the impossible from the child: for example, if we decide to make him a prodigy and start forcefully teach him mathematics, excluding age peculiarities of thinking, we risk cause neurotic or even psychotic reaction.

But at the same time, just a statement that you need to develop capacity in the early stages of age and is not inconsistent with the above.

Types of abilities

Abilities are not homogeneous - there are so-called general and special abilities.

The general abilities include such personality traits that provide the relative ease and efficiency in the acquisition of knowledge and the implementation of various activities. This curiosity, attentiveness, consistency, ability to set goals and implement them. General ability is closely linked to the orientation of the person, with the stability of interests.

Special abilities are formed on the basis of common. These include the ability to certain activities: music, math, organizational, artistic.

Levels of ability

There are two types of development of abilities: the reproductive and creative.

A person who is on the first level of development of abilities, well absorbed knowledge, solving algorithms. The second level involves the development of abilities to create something new and original. At this level of talent and ability to relate genius.

Talent - this level of development capabilities, which involves exceptional skill and at the same time original, creative problem solving in a certain area, ie considered a talented man who has mastered all the secrets of the profession (reproduction rate) and at the same time capable of not just exclusively to the successful assimilation of knowledge and skills, but also offers new, innovative ways to use them (creative level).

Genius - the highest level of creative talent, the ability of original, unconventional perceive the world. Commonly called human genius, whose discoveries make all mankind to see the world in new ways.

Genius is often accompanied by an inability to successful adaptation to the environment in the usual sense. Most of the men of genius from childhood showed themselves incapable of perceiving the world by conventional methods and, therefore, unable to "normal" learning disability.

We also know that many brilliant people fell into madness (Tasso, Swift, Lenau, Schumann, Haller, Nietzsche, Pascal, etc.). That is why in the history of attempts to put the genius on a par with madness (Plato - the theory of "divine madness" of poets, C. Lombroso "Genius and Madness"). Indeed, sometimes a genius sudden irresistible thirst for creativity, similar in some respects over some psychopathology. But a huge difference in the social significance of these states allows us to reduce genius to madness.

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