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Psycology » General Psychology » Emotional and volitional processes » Emotions

Emotions - Is the direct experience of life biased sense of phenomena and situations. Emotions arose in phylogeny as a signal of the biological condition of the body after various influences on it, and are now the form of specific experience that enables individuals to make individual, focusing on them, the necessary steps, the appropriateness of which for him is unclear. But these actions provide vital requirements. Thus, the negative emotions that accompany hunger, make us look for ways to meet this demand, which in turn is aimed at preserving the normal functioning of the body.

Theory of emotion

James-Lange Theory suggests that initially there is a reaction of the organism to any situation, which is then experienced as a certain emotion. Ie when meeting with an evil dog, we first feel like we knees trembled and felt cold inside, and then realize that we are afraid. According to James, "we are sad because we cry, angry because to kick and tremble because we are afraid."

Theory Cannon-Ward called into question the theory, because, according to Cannon, many different emotions correspond to the same physiological state and depends only on the individual, how he interprets this condition and what sign - positive or negative - it appends.

Information theory Simonov establishes a relationship between the occurrence of a certain emotion and intensity of coloration and the degree of awareness of the individual's ability to meet any need.

Emotion = required information - the information available.

Clearly, if the individual has all the necessary information about the ability to meet the needs, there is a positive emotion, but if the available information is insufficient, there is a negative emotion.

Classification of emotions

1. Most simple of the existing classification of emotions proposes to divide them into two categories: individual experienced as negative and experienced individual as positive.

2. Also there is a classification, offering to share emotions sthenic (activating the human willingness to enhance its activity) and asthenia (relaxing, tiring person, causing confusion).

3. Classification proposed by Wundt, offers characterize emotions in three areas:

  • pleasure-displeasure;
  • stress-depression;
  • excitation-inhibition.

4. American psychologist K. Izard emphasizes the following basic emotions:

  • interest-excitement;
  • joy;
  • surprise;
  • woe-suffering;
  • anger;
  • aversion;
  • contempt;
  • shame;
  • wine.

All other emotional reactions of individuals, according to Izard are derivatives and complex, ie arise based on several fundamental.

5. B.Dodonov national psychology offers a more complex classification of emotions:

  • altruistic emotions (desire to help others);
  • communicative emotions (resulting communication);
  • gloricheskie emotions (associated with the need for self-affirmation);
  • praksicheskie emotions (associated with the success of activities);
  • pugnicheskie emotions (associated with situations of danger, with the need to take risks);
  • romantic emotions (desire for extraordinary, new);
  • Gnostic emotions (resulting in knowledge);
  • aesthetic emotions (associated with the perception of works of art);
  • hedonic emotions (associated with the need for pleasure amenities);
  • akizitivnye emotions (related to the accumulation of interest, collecting).
Emotional states

The simplest and oldest form of experience of emotions is the emotional tone sensations. Any signal received by our analyzers, causing some emotional reaction - positive or negative. At any given time affects us a huge amount of stimuli and each of them emotionally experienced by us.

If the total number of stimuli causing a positive emotional response is more, we feel at the moment is good - calm, relaxed, satisfied. If, on the contrary, a significant detrimental impact stimuli, we feel "at ease", "uncomfortable", intensely restless. Particularly important for the formation of a common emotional tone sensations are olfactory stimuli. Olfaction - the oldest of the analyzers. It is through the nervous vegetative system is closely connected with the activity of the endocrine glands and significantly affect the overall condition of the body - including the overall emotional tone.

Mood - an emotional state for a long time coloring all the psychic life of man. There are two types of moods:

  • undifferentiated emotional background (elevated or depressed);
  • clearly identifiable state (boredom, sadness, joy).

Factors causing a certain mood, can be very different from physiological to highly spiritual. For example, indigestion, feeling guilty for improper action or thought, the conflict situation in the family, dissatisfaction with the level of work done contribute to the formation of a bad mood, and, say, a sense of well-being of the organism after skiing or full sleep, successfully completed work, meeting with expensive man, a good book cause a good mood. The specificity of this emotional state that a person being in a certain mood, takes all the signals from the environment painted in the same emotional tone, even if he is able to rationally evaluate them adequately.

Frustration - a state of acute feelings of unmet need, awareness of the impossibility of achieving any meaningful purpose.
Factors causing this condition, called frustratorami, and situations in which this condition occurs, called Frustration situations. Frustratorami can be a wide range of factors: physiological (deprivation of sleep, food, cold, thirst, unmet sexual needs, etc.), psychological (lack of communication, lack of information, ethical internal conflicts, etc.)

A person in a state of frustration, experiencing a whole range of negative emotional feelings: anger, guilt, frustration, despair.

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