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Speech - specifically human way of exchanging information provided by the progress of human civilization due to the accumulation of collective experience.

Speech - one of the essential factors that distinguish the human psyche from the psyche of animals. All kinds of social animals (ie living groups - flocks, herds, etc.) are signals that they exchange in a given situation. Each signal starts a specific behavioral response - the desire to hide or flee when danger signals, searching for food in the presence of a signal that someone in the group found it. Reaction to signals in most animal species is innate, in of some species of monkeys innate signals to align signals generated in the process of living together and including conditioned reflex reaction. The man also has a number of unconditioned reflex beeps - a cry of pain, involuntary cry as a reaction to a dangerous situation. But along with this so-called first signal system a person has a second signal system - human speech with which we not only share information about the current situation, but we can talk about the past or the future, or that does not exist.

Capacity for speech is innate, but this ability can be updated only if the child develops among people who talk to him and each other. Cases of so-called child Mowgli, ie children raised by monkeys, wolves convince us that this ability should be updated in a specific timeframe. If the child does not speak for one reason or another at the age of close to two years, then every year, which separates it from this age, the ability to update the speech functions will decrease, ie than in older age we try to teach your child to talk (if it did not happen naturally), the less success we achieve.

Capacity for speech includes several inextricably linked processes: the ability to pronouncing (speech and motor skills phonetics), the ability to understand spoken language (ie, understanding the meaning of words - semantics), the ability to understand written language (ie, reading ), the ability to correct construction of speech (syntax), the ability to write.

Physiologists have found a number of speech centers, which in most cases are located in the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex and are responsible for different verbal processes.

When violations occur in brain activity violating the relevant speech functions:

  • disorders of articulation (Broca's aphasia) - substantial violations in the ability of the spoken word, ie patients can not utter a word well known to them;
  • violation of the letter (agraphia) - the inability to write due to the fact that the brain can not "remember" the hand movement while writing and playback;
  • understanding of speech disorders (aphasia Wernicke) - patients do not understand the meaning of words, perceive the other's speech as noise, which has no meaning;
  • disorders of reading (alexia) - the inability to understand the meaning of soups, passed in the sign form letters.
Types of Speech

The following types of speech:

  • * External speech - speech, which we use to communicate with other people in ontogeny appears first as unthought imitation of another's speech at the level of the first signal system, appears later understanding of the meaning of spoken words;
  • * Inner speech - speech, providing mental activity, as well as communicate with each other;
  • * Interim speech - partially internalized (that has the inside) external speech in which part of speech activity is carried outside and inside part of consciousness.

Externally it looks like a meaningless sketchy speech. In ontogenesis is a normal stage in the transition to internal external speech. In adults, a return to the intermediate speech indicates asthenia (depletion) of the psyche, fatigue, neurosis.

In turn, the external speech can be divided into oral and written and oral - to monologue and dialogue. Each type of speech has its own characteristics. For example, writing requires greater specificity thoughts, and at oral dialogic speech accession nonverbal communication channels (tion intonation, facial expressions, gestures, body postures) to adequately express their thoughts more scarce speech means.

By the degree of activity of the process is isolated:

  • active speech, in which each phrase independently constructed by man;
  • passive speech in which a person enjoys ready clichés.
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