General Psychology Psychiatry Psychologists Thinkers Crib

Psycology » General Psychology » Mental processes » Perception

Perception - creating a complete image of the object on the basis of sensory data and past experience of the subject.

The process of perception is inextricably linked with feelings and based on them. Sensations combine to provide a perception, ie process of direct perception of objects. But apart from the information delivered by the senses, perception and apperception present - perceived dependence on past experience and the contents of the unconscious.

In the primary perception of the object, a person or situation we are building the image perception of relying more heavily on generalized sensory data and only partially - on his personal experience. With multiple perceptions of the same objects or people Apperception percentage increases many times perception and our perception of only a very limited extent relies on objective information obtained during the course of sensations.

Primary object perception - perception

Subsequent perception - apperception

Thus, in the perception of familiar objects, we focus mainly on their own experience and, therefore, perceive all phenomena actu ¬ sion is very individual. In other words, despite the fact that we all live in one world, picture of the world and everyone has their own perception of the world is significantly different from other people.

However, it is the perception of a child is based on communication with other people and that is why only a person living in human society, close to the people, is able to perceive the world as a human.

Perception is characterized by the following features:

Objectivity (Or the act of objectification) - a feature of perception by which we are able to perceive the world around objects as existing outside and independent of us. For a long period of ontogenetic (ontogeny - the development of man in the process of growing up) development, the child perceives the world as an extension of his own body. In other words, it does not have the ability to dismember subject and object. Only about a three-year (and according to some researchers - to 12 years) the child is able to be clearly aware of his own being borders, due to the concept of "self." Expressed updated features in this conscious use child pronouns "I".

Integrity - The ability to combine data from our perception of various sensations in the holistic image of the object. The integrity of perception expressed in the possibility of identification of the object in cases where any part of it can not be seen or object is presented to us in an unusual perspective.

For example, we can easily identify a book which might be filed, it has not in the usual form, and the form of a rectangle with sides of the spine.

Constancy - The ability of our perception for a permanence time maintain the shape and dimensions of perceived objects, regardless of changes in distance, and the viewing angle changes. In most substantial extent this property works against human perception. Even from a distance we correctly evaluate growth and other parameters of the perceived rights.

Structural related to the integrity and is expressed in volume. What we perceive abstracted from single momentary sensations structure object or phenomenon.

When we listen to the melody, we actually reflect individual sounds, of which due to structural folds all melodic number.

Meaningfulness of perception associated with apperception and is expressed in the fact that we all strive to be called perceived (ie, expressed in the concept), classify (ie attributed to a class, and thus subject to assign certain characteristics of this class of objects). So, seeing a big dog people take her characteristics such as animal capable of biting, which is to be feared. Also meaningful perception associated with intellectual baggage perceiver, his knowledge of the subject matter of perception. Ordinary person any snake, which he sees seems dangerous and herpetologist determine exactly name of this species and its degree of danger.

Apperception and meaningful perception is closely related to the installation of the subject.

Installation is called a kind of individual glasses through which we see the world and that affect our perception. The following types of plants: semantic, targets, operational. Constitute a special category of unconscious attitudes, depending on the contents of the personal unconscious. You can also select an emotional installations which depend on the transient and the emotional state of the subject at the moment.

Semantic installation formed during ontogeny and expresses the personal relation of the subject to significant objects and phenomena. They contain information component (knowledge about the subject), emotionally evaluative component (sympathy or antipathy towards him), the behavioral component (willingness to act one way or another in relation to this subject or in this situation). In fact, with regard to any perceived objects, people or events we act from the standpoint of our semantic units.

Target setting is also associated with the experience, but do not have such a stable character as meaningful. Target setting related to the perception of events, objects and people through the prism of today's individual goals and objectives vary with changes and target setting.

Position expressed in operational readiness of the subject to solve the same problem constantly the same way, to behave in the same situations equally.

Thus, at each time our perception of the world is determined by various units, which makes the personality of our perception. But it is necessary to tolerate someone else's point of view, understanding that other people based on their own experience can develop qualitatively different ways of seeing the world.

© 2008-2021 Psychology online.: en, es, de, fr, cz