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Psycology » General Psychology » Mental processes » Feeling

Feeling - Is one of the simplest mental processes, which is a response to the individual properties of the object, by which we can appreciate the many-shaped characteristics of the stimulus acting on us, but we can not say what the stimulus.

Sensation occurs due to the special mechanism called the analyzer. Analyzer consists of three divisions:

1. Peripheral part is a collection of sensitive cells - receptors capable under the influence of the stimulus to change their bioelectric potential, ie excited. Each type of receptor is a specialized, ie responds to a certain kind of energy - thermal, chemical, mechanical, electrical or electromagnetic. What is a sensitive organ for each type of analyzer can be seen from the table, which also shows the quality of recognized receptors:

Modality Sensitive organ QualityVision The retina Brightness, contrast, movement, size, color Hearing Snail Pitch, tone, sound Power Balance Vestibular apparatus Changing the position of the body Touch Leather Pressure, Temperature Taste Language Sweet, bitter, sour, salty Smell Sinuses Scents

2. Conductor Division presented afferent (afferent) nerves that conduct the initial impulse from the receptors in the cerebral cortex, and afferent (centrifugal) nerves that conduct the response signal from the brain to the periphery.

3. Cortical areas, where recognized and provided the initial impulse response of the body. Here and there is a mental process, which is called feeling, but in order for it arose, requires coordinated work of all three divisions of the analyzer.

Receptor departments of various analyzers have several common features:

  • Adaptation - Changing the analyzer when exposed to stimuli of varying strength. The analyzer is increased under the influence of a weak stimulus to more accurately estimate the signal, when exposed to the stimulus of great strength analyzer sensitivity decreases.
  • Contrast - infringement of sensitivity under the influence of prior exposure to stimuli. This occurs because the analyzer by tuning into a specific stimulus strength over time this configuration maintains the expense of another property receptors.
  • Aftereffect - delayed excitation of a certain strength in the analyzer after the impact of the stimulus.
  • Interaction - the appearance of excitation in the analyzer, which has not experienced the direct effects of the stimulus. Interaction analyzers exists in two forms:
    • Sensitization - Sensitization one analyzer when exposed to a stimulus on the other analyzer. So, at the words "sour lemon" many subjects may have different sensations in analyzer, did not experience the direct impact of the stimulus: increased salivation, sour taste, mixing cheekbones.
    • synesthesia - appearance at a boring one analyzer sensations characteristic of the other analyzer. For example, colored hearing possessed NA Rimsky-Korsakov: the perception of sound and he also perceived a certain color.

Analyzers can react to stimuli of a certain strength. Stimulus should have a certain value to cause a sensation, i.e. must overcome the physiological threshold of excitation, which is quite low. But this does not mean that such a signal can be consciously perceived world. To be perceived on a conscious level, the signal must overcome another threshold - the threshold of conscious recognition. When exceeding the strength of the stimulus zone conscious identification, modality changes perception. We perceive no longer an adequate signal and pain.

Classification sensations

In psychology taken several classifications of sensations:

1. According modality sensations are divided into:

  • contact (contact is irritant receptors) - touch and taste;
  • distant (stimulus acts on receptors from afar) - sight, hearing, smell.

2. According location sensation receptors are divided into:

  • Exteroceptive - body surface receptors that respond to signals from the environment;
  • interoceptive - receptors located in the internal organs and tissues;
  • proprioceptive - receptors located in the muscles and ligaments and delivering information about the movement and position of the body.
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