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  • Mental retardation (mental retardation)
  • Mental retardation: classification
  • Types and causes of mental retardation
  • Diagnosis and treatment of mental retardation

Mental deficiency - Congenital or acquired in early postnatal hypoplasia with mental phenomena expressed intelligence failure, difficulty or inability to complete the social functioning of the individual. The term "mental retardation" in the world of psychiatry established in the last two decades, entered the international classification, replacing the previously used the term "mental retardation."

The notion of mental retardation and the term introduced into scientific lexicon Kraepelin (1915) as a synonym for "general mental retardation."

In ICD-10 (F70-79) mental retardation is defined as "a state of arrested or incomplete development of the mind, which is primarily characterized by impaired abilities manifested at maturity and provide the overall level of intelligence, ie cognitive, speech, motor, and social aspects. " Obligate signs of mental retardation is the early (up to three years) the occurrence of mental disorders and adaptation in violation of the social environment.

The main manifestation of mental retardation - mental hypoplasia - depending on the particular form of the disease can be combined with various physical, neurological, mental, biochemical, endocrine, autonomic disturbances. The lack of progression is also a feature of its obligate unlike various embodiments dementiruyuschih processes.

The prevalence of mental retardation is not fully understood. The maximum value of this indicator between the ages 10-19 years old, in this age, any special requirement to the level of cognitive ability (schooling, going to college, conscription). Official medical statements give a wide range of dispersion parameters from 1.4 to 24.6 per 1,000 teens. Also fluctuate regional indicators on prevalence mental retardation. This may be due to the presence of isolates, the difference in the environmental and socio-economic conditions of life, quality of medical care.


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