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  • Mental retardation (mental retardation)
  • Mental retardation: classification
  • Types and causes of mental retardation
  • Diagnosis and treatment of mental retardation

Mental retardation is characterized by different depth of mental underdevelopment, in this regard, it subdivided according to the degree of mental retardation on debility (mild intellectual disability), imbecility (medium) and idiocy. In typical cases, these clinical variants determined without difficulty, but the boundary between mild idiocy and imbecility deep, as well as between severe debility and imbecility manifestations are blurred to some extent conditional.

Degree of mental retardation: moronic (mild mental retardation)

(From Lat. Debilis - weak, weak) is mild mental retardation is characterized by the lowest degree of mental underdevelopment. The main feature of the phenomena oligophrenics retardation is a loss of the ability to develop complex concepts. This violates the opportunity complex generalizations, the formation of abstract thinking. Patients specifically simplistic thinking prevails, whereby it is difficult to understand the whole situation entirely, captured only the external side events inside their essence is inaccessible to understand. Of course, all this makes it difficult fixture in the social environment, inhibits the growth of the individual, especially creativity, the ability to foresee the course of events, to take operational forecasting solutions. Depending on the degree itself retardation (mild, moderate, severe) inability to develop concepts, to assess the situation and expressed its prediction is more obvious and dramatically, the only scheduled. Yet violation of abstract thinking at a constant symptom of morons. Due to the fact that the mechanical memory is not affected, morons can go to school, although assimilation of the material is difficult, takes a long time. Naturally, the most difficult to learn the subjects are mathematics, physics. Because own creativity in no morons, they try to learn from what they hear from others - their views, expressions, they use well-known patterns in speech, with sufficient inertia hold a certain position. Some of them even mentioned the tendency to teach others, to talk about what they just do not understand ("salon morons"). Along with the lack of ability to fine analysis of the situation, when summarizing the facts of mild retardation, these individuals may be guided well in ordinary concrete situation, show good practical knowledge, in some cases, cunning and resourcefulness. Kraepelin said that "their skill more than knowledge." At sufficiently obvious mental retardation morons, some of them may even be signs of partial giftedness (absolute ear for music, the ability to draw, memorize mechanically extensive information, etc.).

Along with impaired abstract thinking obligate symptom among morons is suggestibility, gullibility, they easily fall under foreign influence. The latter property is fraught with the danger that they may become a tool in the hands of other people, mentally and morally unscrupulous, malicious. Primitive drives often get their character disinhibition (nude sexy, attraction to arson, etc.).
Key personal attributes morons, as well as imbeciles, can define their character or how good-natured gentle, affable, or, alternatively, as an aggressive stubbornness, malice, distrust. Motility may also be different, in some behavior becomes excitable other characteristic lethargy, immobility.


(From Lat. Imbecillus - weak light) - the average degree of delay (retardation) mental development, in which patients can form submission, but the formation of concepts is impossible for them. The ability to think abstractly is lost, as well as to generalize, but imbeciles can acquire skills of self (you dress, eat, take care of themselves). They are accustomed to and unskilled labor, developing these skills through training (this may help in cleaning the premises, manufacturing paper bags).
Vocabulary they have limited, they can only understand simple speech. These imbeciles themselves tongue-tied, this standard phrases consisting usually of subject and predicate, sometimes with the inclusion of adjectives.
Adaptation of imbeciles is possible only in the standard, familiar surroundings. Their interests are primitive. They are very suggestible. Imbeciles often gluttonous and slovenly habits. Isolated on the behavior of mobile, active, restless (erectile) and sluggish, apathetic, indifferent to everything except the satisfaction of natural needs (torpid).
Just like morons, imbeciles, or may have a good-natured, or aggressive. Independent life difficult for them, they need constant skilled supervision. This is done in special schools, in health or labor workshops in special boarding schools.


(From the Greek. Idioteia - ignorance) - according to the degree of mental retardation is the most severe degree of mental retardation. Cognitive activity in deep idiots completely absent. They do not react to their surroundings, even a loud noise and bright lights do not attract their attention, idiots not even know her mother, but distinguish between hot and cold.
Patients idiocy not acquire any self-help skills, can not dress, can not use a spoon and fork, they need to constantly feed and care for them. Most idiots has reduced all kinds of sensitivity.
Extremely primitive emotional reactions idiots, they do not know how to cry, laugh, enjoy, more often nastiness, anger.
Motor response of these patients are poor, inexpressive, primitive, they are often chaotic motion, incoherent, monotonous notes monotonous rocking all over, pereminanie from foot to foot, they often make sounds like growling, it is completely absent.
Mild idiocy can be seen basic skills of self, they are able to cling to others, caring for them.
GE Sukharev (1965) among the major diagnostic criteria for mental retardation refers peculiar structure of psychopathology with dementia prevalence weakness abstract thinking with less pronounced violations prerequisites intelligence and relatively less gross underdevelopment of the emotional sphere, as well as character neprogredientny intellectual defect, slowing of mental development in the irreversible nature of the disorder.
Oligophrenia dynamics determined by the presence of evolutionary change (evolutionary dynamics) and decompensation, which are the cause of more adverse external factors.
Evolutionary dynamics in mental retardation is assessed as positive.

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