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  • Mental retardation (mental retardation)
  • Mental retardation: classification
  • Types and causes of mental retardation
  • Diagnosis and treatment of mental retardation

The diagnosis of mental retardation in the degree of idiocy and imbecility presents no difficulty, since the signs of reducing coarse intellectual sphere and mental underdevelopment in these children are found quite early and are apparent. Harder to diagnose mental retardation under debility. For accurate diagnosis requires the full features of the study of child development, which requires, above all, a thorough collection of anamnestic information. Need to find out whether relatives of cases of mental illness, severe alcoholism, mental development anomalies. Very important information about how the pregnancy proceeded mother was not there at this time in her infectious diseases, not been subjected to the effects of exogenous hazards (toxicity, taking potent drugs, radiation exposure) as she ate, did not use any food transgenic products with activity (foods containing large amounts of soy, beans, etc.). Equally important information about the course of delivery (term delivery, prolonged labor, while discharge of water). Specified information about the conditions in which the child was, he ate what was a dream. If the child attends child care, it is desirable to have information about his behavior, character, communication, mental development. For suspected mental retardation need to provide comprehensive clinical examination in identifying the physical, neurological, psychiatric disorders, focuses on the development of intellectual and speech functions. It is mandatory to carry out laboratory studies, psychological testing, genetic studies in suspected some form of mental retardation.
Mental retardation need to differentiate cases of educational neglect when a child's mental development retardation due to defects of education, lack of the necessary information, contributing to the expansion of the conceptual apparatus, broaden their outlook. Establish the influence of these factors and their elimination leads to the normalization of mental development and excludes mental retardation. Sometimes the differential diagnosis should be carried out with the early onset of schizophrenia, which in such cases gives "oligofrenopodobny" defect. However, endogenous process shows signs of progression with specific disorders of thinking, the growth of autism, while the intellect itself does not suffer to the same extent as observed with mental retardation.
Severe prolonged asthenia child due to a physical illness can lead to a delay in development, thus there is a confusion, impaired attention, memory loss, that may create the impression outwardly known disorders of mental activity. However, if there are signs of fatigue irritable weakness, sleep disturbances. Treatment of physical illness improves the general health of the child and with it activated its mental activity, restores attention improves memory. This allows you to completely exclude the presence of mental retardation.


Treatment of differentiated forms of individual mental retardation has been described in describing the characteristics of their clinic. In the case of establishing mental retardation due to the impact of exogenous factors therapy aims to correct them and elimination (use of antibacterial drugs, various methods of detoxification).
In order to restore cognitive functions used nootropics, drugs such as gammalon, aminalon, entsefabol, Pantogamum, Phenibutum, cerebrolysin Akatinol-memantine and others. Much more significant rehabilitation measures, memory training, the development of self-help skills, broaden their horizons child holding therapy, the use of learning techniques. Consistency, consistency, orderliness at this crucial and in many cases give a pronounced positive result due to the formation evolutive dynamics of mental retardation.


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